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Psychology (5,220)
PSYCH 1N03 (53)
Joe Kim (19)
Lecture

Levels of Analysis.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1N03
Professor
Joe Kim

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Levels of Analysis (Module) Module: Introduction to Psychology Subtopic: Psychology is a Diverse Field -teaches us how we think, feel, develop, learn, love, interact and grow; teaches us who we are Subtopic: Psychology as a Science -experimental psychology used the scientific method to collect, evaluate and interpret information to draw sound conclusions-- Subtopic: Conclusions -psychology has been influenced by several schools of thought which have each introduced new questions, tools, and perspectives -different views sometimes clash leading to great debates about such fundamental concerns as what should be the focus of psychology Module: A Brief History of Psychology Subtopic: Psychology’s Parents -Ebbinghaus (psychology had a long past but a short history) -throughout its history, the integration of new schools of thought and technological innovations have driven the field forward in the quest to solve some of the oldest puzzles in science and philosophy -Psychology: the term psychology comes from the Greek words “psyche”, which means soul -philosophers such as Aristotle and Plate contemplated fundamental questions of “how do we learn and remember?” -Rene Descartes suggested that the mind and body were distinct entities that were casually linked in a dualistic relationship: the mind in turn received information about the outside world through sense organs -Muller proposed that like an electrical current flowing along a metal conductor, the messages transmitted by nerves were coded as electrical impulses that travelled along different channels -Muller further explained that particular parts of the body are connected to specific areas of the brain to serve different functions -Fluorens experiments supported this idea and used a technique to systematically destroy different regions of an animal’s brain (from this, he learned which brain regions control heart rate, breathing, and processes of visual and auditory reflexes) Subtopic: Psychology as an Independent Field -William Wundt opened his first lab dedicated to psychology; believed that conscious experience could be studied using the same rigorous experimental tools that chemists and physicists use to study their research questions, then published psychology journal -Stanley Hall (Wundt’s student) opened first psychology laboratory in North America and founded the American Psychological Association Subtopic: Looking Ahead -modern approach to questions of Psychology draws on expertise from many converging fields including: physical, biological, chemical, social, mathematical and computer sciences (this approach is reflected in the multiple levels of analyses and perspectives used to view problems in psychology) Module: Introduction to Levels of Analysis Subtopic: Multiple Levels of Analysis -three basic levels of analyses: Psychological, Biological and Environmental Subtopic: Introduction to Psychological Analysis -most intuitive level to approach an understanding of human thought and behaviour -concerns itself with the role of what lies within a subjects mind: how so thoughts, memories, and emotions motivate our actions? -studies how emotions, memories and patterns of thinking lie at the core of the problem Subtopic: Introduction to Biological Analysis -focus on the physiological mechanisms that underlie thoughts and behaviour -may include structure and function of the brain, the molecular effects of neurotransmitters and hormones, and how genetic factors contribute to behaviour -studies role of key neurotransmitters such as serotonin in mood disorders and genetic factors that make some individuals more prone to certain illnesses or disorders Subtopic: Introduction to the Environmental Analysis -concerned with understanding how social, cultural, and learning interactions can influence thought and behaviour -study the conditions that triggered and maintain feelings (ex: depression); in this manner, working to change these external influences may bring out positive changes Module: Introduction to Perspectives in Psychology Subtopic: Multiple Perspectives -from broad view, psychologist can choose from levels of analysis to help frame research questions but more specifically, a problem can be approached from a perspective which has specific goals and involved one or more of these levels of analysis - some commonly used perspectives include: behavioural, evolution, neuroscience, social cultural, cognitive and development Subtopic: Behavioural Perspective -father of behaviourism, Watson -according to perspective, overt behaviour is the only valid means of measure in psychology -Watson argues that scientists should consider the mind to be an off limits “black box” that takes input and makes output -what actually ha
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