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Lecture

# Research Methods 2.docx

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McMaster University

Psychology

PSYCH 1X03

Joe Kim

Fall

Description

Psychology Research Methods 2
Module 1: Descriptive Statistics
- statistics allow us to summarize, interpret, and present the data we have collected
- descriptive statistics: present information about data-at-a-glance to give you an overall
idea of the results of the experiment
- summary statistics: mean, median and mode
Using Histograms
- a histogram is a type of graph used to report the number of times groups of values
appear in a data set; the horizontal x-axis is divided into groups of values called bins;
the vertical y-axis measures the number of times that a value in the dara set falls into a
given bin, know as the frequency
- use a histogram as a base to create a frequency distribution: type of graph illustrating
the distribution of how frequent values appear in the data set
- normal distribution: a distribution with a characteristic smooth, bell and
symmetricalshaped
curve around a single peak
Measures of Central Tendency
- the measures of central tendency tell us where a data set is centered, the most
common measure is the mean (average)
- mean: the average value of a data set
- the mean could be influenced by outliers: extreme points distant from others in a data
set
- the median: the centre value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically
- the mode: the value that appears most frequently in a data set
Measures of Variability
- measures of variability are a second group of descriptive statistics that review the
spread and distribution of a data set
- the most common measure of variability is standard deviation
- the standard deviation: a measure of the average distance of each data point from the
mean
Module 2: Inferential Statistics
- inferential statistics: statistics that allow us to use results from samples to make
inferences about overall, underlying populations
Hypothesis Testing
- T-Test: a statistic

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