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Problem Solving.docx

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psychology Problem Solving & intelligence October 10, 2012 Intelligence - assumption o ability to perform cognitive tasks o ability to learn from past experiences and adapt - definition: cognitive ability to learn from experience, reason well, remember important info and cope with daily living Problem Solving - interpreting social situation, finding solution to math problem - strategies to solve problems? - Deductive Reasoning o Concrete conclusion based on general idea - Inductive Reasoning o General idea based on concrete information Insight Problems - special category of problems to test ability to think outside of box - functional fixedness o difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects History of Intelligence Testing - Qualities of a test o Reliability  Extent to which repeated testing produces same result o Validity  Extent to which a given test actually measures what you are measuring - Francis Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin) o Goal: to quantify intelligence unbiased-ly o Recorded how quickly subjects responded to sensory motor tasks  faster reaction time = higher intelligence - Alfred Binet o Determine which students needed special education o 30 short tasks that were related to reasoning o updated the scale by Lous Terman (from Standford)  Stanford-Binet intelligence test - Charles Spearman o Believer of single type of intelligence o Observed that most ppl who performed well on classical intelligent tasks performed well on all kinds of tasks  Believed there was one general intelligence = G o Claimed  only individuals with a min. lvl of G can vote and reproduce - Howard Gardner o Theory: multiple intelligences. Each intelligence is individual from the other Psychology Problem Solving & intelligence October 10, 2012  Linguistic - verbal  Mathematical - logical  Rhythmic - musical  Spatial - bodily  Kinesthetic  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalistic o But it contradicts previous results from experiments Human Intelligence - Weschler Scales o Wescheler Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) o Standardized to produce intelligence quotient (IQ) - Does a person’s intelligence result from genes or environment? o Both are essential (?) - Do the individual differences in IQ result more from genes or environmental differences o Use correlation studies  Compare identical twins and fraternal twins  Identical twins = 0.80  Fraternal twins = 0.60  Suggests role of genes for intelligence  Identical twins living in different environments = 0.70  suggests high correlation b/t genes and intelligence Flynn Effect - definition  raw IQ scores have been rising since 1932 o documented by James Flynn - Flynn argues that increased quality of schooling plays important role to t
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