Psych Week Six: Problem Solving & Intelligence 10/17/2011 2:34:00 PM
Involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capability to
learn from experience and adapt.
The cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience,
reason well, remember important information and cope with the
demands of daily living.
You come to a concrete conclusion based on a general idea.
Example: If Dr. Kim tells us that it is about to rain, we deduct that
soon the ground will be wet.
Example: In science, we use a theory to make a hypothesis.
Idea -> Conclusion
You generate a general idea given concrete information.
Example: If you wake up in the morning and notice the ground is
wet, you can use inductive reasoning to say that it must of rained
Example: In science we use results in an experiment, then relate it
to the world.
Fact -> Idea
A special category of problems that are designed to test your ability
to “think outside the box”.
Our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects.
A reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it
It is important for an intelligence test, because psychologists
assume that intelligence is a static, internal quality.
A valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring.
Does a given test actually measure your intelligence or your ability
to answer certain types of questions?
Charles Spearmen He was a firm believer in the idea of a single type of intelligence –
Believed that people with only a minimum level of “G” should be
allowed to vote, and allowed to reproduce.
The mean score for intelligence testing in the population has been
Raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932.
May be due to increased quality of schooling, the increased access
to information and diet.
Believes that children are active learners, and by manipulating and
exploring their environments, children incorporate new information
into what they know.
He said that there were four stages of development, and that you
can only pass on to the next stage after developing a new schema:
o 0-2 Years
o The child begins to recognize that he can affect change on his
o Begins to purposefully engage with the world and act with
o To move on to the next stage the child must understand
This is when the child realizes that objects can continue
to exist even when he can’t see them anymore.
o 2-7 Years
o Has mastered object permanence, but has yet to understand
egocentrism, seriation, reversible relationships, and
When the child has difficulty understanding the world
from a perspective other than their own.
o Seriation Is the ability to logically order a series of objects.
o Reversible Relationship
Can identify that they have a brother, but cannot
indentify that the brother has a sister.
Example: fluid conservation. A child will believe a taller
narrower glass has more milk th