Class Notes (808,141)
Canada (493,088)
Psychology (4,969)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,053)
Joe Kim (987)

Psychology Web Module Notes- Attention.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Joe Kim

Psychology Web Module Notes Attention  Attention allows you to navigate through a crowded world brimming with information and distractions; you need the ability to focus your attention for more than just crossing a busy street intersection.  Selection- attending to something causes the object of attention to be selected apart from the rest of the unattended objects.  Attention also refers to our conscious ability to attend to the information that is relevant to our goals.  We are remarkably adapt at distinguishing the relevant from the irrelevant information in the environment. The irrelevant information in the environment acts as noise that can make it difficult to identify and attend to important information. Automatic and Controlled Attention  Automatic- involuntary, fast and efficient  Controlled- conscious, slow and effortful  Automatic processes are triggered involuntarily by external events and trigger the “capture” of attention.  Controlled processes guide attention voluntarily and consciously to objects to interest.  It’s difficult to consciously attend to many aspects of the task-environment at the same time because the resources for controlled processes are limited.  In automatic attention, some of the cues seem to be more noticeable and lead to stronger and quicker association when paired with events. This is the notion of salience.  A salient piece of information is one that appears to naturally pop-out at you.  There is a second type of automatic process related to learning; example: driving, at first it seems difficult and requires a lot of attention, but as you get better it becomes automatic. The Spotlight Model  A spotlight illuminates a key part of the visual scene and focuses where you look (focuses on only part of the environment at a time).  As your attention moves around your field of vision, objects falling within the spotlight are processed preferentially: you can respond to objects faster and greater accuracy. Spatial Cueing Paradigm  Experimentally manipulate the attentional spotlight  Flashing box serves as a cue for your attention; the target can then follow in either the cued or uncued location.  If a target appeards in the cued location= amplify the perceptual processing of that target and it will be detected quickly. Opposite if the target doesn’t appear in the location that the spotlight flashes on.  This translates into a measurable difference in target detection in target detection in the cued and uncued trials.  Under many circumstances, consciously controlled shifts of attention can lead to faster responses to targets that appear in the location indicated by the cue than to targets that appear opposite the location indicated by the cue.  In all of these experiments on spatial cueing, the predictive cues lead to faster detection times even though the subjects don’t have time to move their eyes to the cued location before making the judgement. Filter Models  The ability to single out one specific cue that stands out from the rest of the cues trying to get your attention.  Cocktail effect- in which subjects were asked to listen to two different messages played from a single loudspeaker at the same time. Subjects tried to separate the messages, repeating one but not the other, in a so called “shadowing” task.  Filter models suggest that attention helps ignore the grass and allows the flower to continue on for further processing. Broadbent’s Single Filter Model  Broadbent used data from behavioural experiments to infer the functional stages of cognitive processing.  The attentional filter selects important information on the basis of physical characteristics, and allows that information to continue on for further processing.  Information that does not pass through the early physical filter was assumed to be completely eliminated and unav
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1X03

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.