Module 1 – Overview
Psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, behavioural, and cognitive approaches to personality
Module 2 – Jung’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Introduction to Jung
Jung distinguished his analytic theory from Freud’s psychodynamic theory.
Jung believed that motivation is provided by the libido, but unlike Freud, Jung thought that the
drives in libido are for more than sex and aggression.
Libido is not sexual energy, but a general life-enhancing energy that can be directed towards
meeting different needs at different times in our lives.
Ego is central to our conscious mind and that our unconscious psyche is divided into a personal
unconscious and a collective unconscious.
Collective Unconscious and Archetypes
Collective unconscious: ancient part of the human mind that forms the biological basis of human
Libido is contained in the collective unconscious in the form of basic human instincts called
archetypes shared by all human beings.
Archetypes lead us to interpret and organize our experiences in certain ways.
Archetypes are only accessed indirectly but are projected onto almost everything we do.
Ex.: although you may think that you are writing new stories, developing new themes, or
intuiting new religious truths, all of these activities bear the imprint of our archetypes.
To identify archetypes, Jung searched the literature, myths and religions of dozens of cultures
for common themes, characters and ideas about life and the world. He assumed that these
commonalities reflected the projection of universal archetypes such as the hero, social
conformity, birth and rebirth.
Personal Unconscious and Complexes
Personal unconscious is different in each of us.
Repository of thoughts, memories and emotions that were once conscious, but have been
repressed into unconsciousness.
The contents of the personal unconscious, unlike those of the collective unconscious, can be
brought back into consciousness and into the ego – recalling of past events
Complexes are collections of images, memories, and feelings connected by a common theme.
Ex.: mother complex, inferiority complex – the collection of complexes that an individual holds
helps to make up our personality.
Personality Development Few complexes that everybody has in common including the Persona, the Animus and Anima,
the Shadow, and the Self.
Theme of each of these complexes is an underlying archetype.
The archetype gives us the instinctive drive and the energy for a certain theme; the complexes
are the personal experiences that we gather on the same theme.
Persona: as an archetype, the Persona is our instinct for social conformity; our instinctual need
to be with others and to please them. As a complex, the persona is our public self; those
feelings, thoughts and impulses that we present to others because we think they will be
admired or approved. Persona is related to Freud’s superego, since it represents social values.
Animus/anima: as an archetype, the animus is every woman’s instinctive image of maleness,
while the anima is every man’s instinctive image of femaleness. This is one of the reasons that
men and women experience friction in their relationships with each other. As complexes, the
animus and anima are the opposite parts of our personalities – a man’s anima complex contains
those feelings and thoughts that he rejects from consciousness because he sees them as
feminine. Woman’s animus complex contains feelings and thoughts she rejects from
consciousness because they are masculine.
Shadow: as an archetype, the Shadow is filled with energy, and includes most basic and
primitive instincts – for sexuality and aggression, among other things. We are wary of these
instincts; we project the Shadow into dreams, myth and literature in the form of demons, devils
and vampires. As a complex, the shadow is all those things about ourselves – all the emotions
and impulses – that we reject totally, as not ourselves at all. The shadow has a positive side; it
can be a source of energy, vitality, creativity and intuition. Last part of ourselves to be
Self: most important archetype because it drives personality development. As an archetype it is
the instinctive desire for unity, balance, integration, and wholeness. Projected through our
affinity for circles and symmetrical shapes.
Role of Self is to integrate our conflicting and opposing complexes into unified whole.
Ex.: animus and anima are opposites, and one of them is usually rejected from consciousness,
Jung believes that if we are able to contact the rejected anima or animus, then we will be able to
tap into the real creative potential inherent in our archetypes.
Ex.: if we discover our Shadow, our rejected Other. The Shadow is frightening and difficult to
discover, but if we do manage to reconcile it with our Persona, we unleash a powerful source of
When all these rejected complexes are discovered and allowed to function with the other
complexes, they are integrated into a unified Self, and there is wholeness in our personality
(highest goal in personality development and the process by which this is completed is called
Self-actualization doesn’t typically begin until middle age and is rare for someone to be fully self-
The Ego Ego is the conscious mind.
Ego selects perceptions, thoughts, and feelings from the personal unconscious and lets them
Structure that helps to establish a sense of stability in our perceptions of ourselves and of the
Jung doesn’t believe that our personality lies in our rational and conscious ego, but rather in the
self, the complex, which is between consciousness and unconsciousness.
Became very popular in Western culture.
Archetypes have made their way into literature, and his ideas of complexes have become a part
of our daily language.
Personality involves the whole person, and his belief that personality development spans an
individual’s entire life, paved the way for following theorists who used the humanistic approach
Module 3 – Maslow & The Humanistic Approach
Considered the most optimistic. Focusing on human interests, values, strengths, and virtues
instead of focusing on what they deemed to be the emotionally disturbed aspects of
Freud proposed strict chronological stages of personality development, humanist theorists
stipulated that there is an idea developmental goal, but to get there we experience both
advancements and setbacks in our journey and that you are not limite