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PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
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Lecture

Personality Video Lecture Psych 1X03
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Video Lecture Psych 1X03 Personality Personality 1  Personality has no physical existence; it is an idea, an abstract concept that we use because it seems to express or capture something important about our experiences o “Hypothetical constructs” Approaches to Personality  The Type Approach o Assumes that there are a small umber of distinct personality types o Initially proposed by Hippocrates, Greth physithan o Dominant in Western thinking until 16 and 17 centuries o Human body was made of four “humors”  Blood  Phlegm  Yellow bile  Black bile o Personality was determined based on the balance of these four humors  Eg/ Melancholic personality  Melan – black  Cholic – bile  Often sad and wistful  Psychodynamic Approach  Humanistic Approach  Trait Approach  Behaviorist Approach  Cognitive Approach Psychodynamic Approach to Personality  Sigmund Freud  Personality is generated by internal psychic structures or processes  The characteristics of internal structures in your mind and the way they interact with each other, determine how we feel and behave  Many of these structures are unconscious so we are often unaware of many important aspects of our personality Freud’s Tripartite Model  Three personality structures o ID o Ego o Superego  The struggle among conscious and unconscious influences represented among these three levels is the major motivating forces in humans  ID o Source of basic instincts and your motivational energy (libido) o Responsible for seeking out water, food, air and sex o “Pleasure Principle” – to find and experience pleasure and avoid pain Video Lecture Psych 1X03 o Very selfish and impatient – wants to experience pleasure now and does not want to wait; it wants it regardless of how the behavior would affect other people o Unconscious  Superego o Focused on upholding moral principles o Goal is to ensure that you remain morally perfect; by obeying rules and respecting values o Comes into the age of 5 or 6 – before this time, it is the parents job to teach rules and values that a child should uphold by using rewards and punishment o Self-control is established to for the super-ego through parental control o Conscience stems from superego o Primarily Unconscious  Ego o Serves as a mediator between the Id and the Superego o Aware of the outside reality, what is going on in the world outside of the individual o Must find balance between the desires of the ID and the depends of the Superego –all which ensuring that its realistically possible to do so o Unconscious, preconscious, conscious  Iceberg analogy o Id functions completely in the unconscious o Superego functions predominantly in the unconscious, but Superego a small portion of it falls into the preconscious (beneath the Ego surface of awareness) and the conscious (of which we are aware) o Ego is equally split into each stage of consciousness: ID unconscious preconscious and conscious Defense Mechanisms  According to Freud, our behavior results from a rocky collaboration between the id, ego and superego  The ego tried to satisfy id impulses in ways that are safe and are consistent with the values of the superego – but sometimes it is not possible o If an id impulse is immoral – even thinking about gratifying it causes the conscious ego to feel moral anxiety o If an id impulse leads to punishment, just thinking about it causes the conscious ego to feel neurotic anxiety  The conscious ego is protected against anxiety by defense mechanisms created by the unconscious ego  Defense mechanisms keep the conscious ego from feeling anxious by keeping unacceptable id impulses out of consciousness entirely, or by disguising id impulses so that the conscious ego does not feel anxious about them if they reach consciousness  Repression o Ego blocks id impulse from reaching consciousness o Information can sometimes slip though  As Freudian Slips, or symbolically disguised as dream images o Sometimes an id impulse is so strong that it cannot be kept out of consciousness – it enters the conscious ego and is acted on  new defense mechanisms are needed to make sure that the Video Lecture Psych 1X03 conscious ego does not understand the real nature of what it is thinking or what it has done so that it will not feel anxious  Denial o Conscious ego engages in an activity, but the unconscious ego prevent any memory of the event o Conscious ego has done something immoral – feels no anxiety because it had no memory of the behavior  Denial vs. Repression o Repression – impulse stats in the unconscious and never becomes conscious o Denial – impulse starts in the conscious and is blocked out  Rationalization o Unconscious ego justifies some conscious action o Conscious ego has done something dangerous or immoral, so the unconscious ego floods consciousness with plausible, non-threatening reasons for the behavior o No anxiety because the conscious ego believes that it has engaged in the behavior for perfectly harmless reasons o Eg/ You are involved in a traffic accident and an argument turns into a physical altercation – the aggression generated from the id conflicts with your superego, which believes that violence is wrong; your ego might use  Projection o Anxiety-producing thoughts are attributed to someone else o Eg/ You dislike your co-worker and you feel guilty about it, so you may project your feelings on him and convince yourself that it is really your co-worker who doesn’t like you  Defense of Reaction Formation o Conscious ego is filled with opposite ideas and feelings o Eg/ You like someone, but they do not feel the same way – you may deal with this by outwardly feeling dislike and disapproval of this person  Displacement o Forbidden impulses are redirected to acceptable targets o Eg/ You may not like your supervisor and feel aggressive towards him – it would be inappropriate to act on this aggression, so instead you end up arguing with your friend  Sublimation – sexual or aggressive impulses are displaced to objects or activities that are socially acceptable  Our “higher” activities are due to sublimated libido  Sports, painting and sculpture, literature and science, which we think of as a rational and emotion-free enterprise, is ultimately derived from sexual and aggressive impulses (Freud)  Defense Mechanisms are attempts by one part of the mind (unconscious part of the ego) to fool another part of the mind (conscious part of the ego) Freud’s Personality Development  Psychodynamic approach assumes that personality is part genetic but also allows for experiences to play a role in its development  Psychosexual stages are defined by the dominant erogenous zone o 5 stages of development that covers birth to the final stage at puberty when the fundamental features of our personality have been shaped and remain the same throughout our adult lives  Oral Stage – Birth to 1 year old o Discovery of the mouth Video Lecture Psych 1X03 o Discovers the pleasures of sucking and swallowing, and later biting and chewing  Anal Stage – 1 year old to 3 years old o Giving up feces through bowel movements o Toilet training – no longer able to defecate at all times o Pleasure of holding onto feces  Phallic Stage – 3 years old to 6 years old o The pleasure of stimulating the phallic area o Oedipus Complex  Boys go through the Oedipus complex during the phallic stage  Ego invests sexual libido to his mother – she has fed him and taken care of him; he wants to possess mother for himself  The boys motive is sexual gratification – but he isn’t thinking about sexual intercourse (foreign concept to him)  Primary goal is to have mother to himself against any competing interest  Dads time with mother takes time away from the boy – child wants to rid of Dad  Dad is big and strong – boy is afraid dad might retaliate  Boy observes that girls do not have penises – becomes convinced that dad will retaliate against him by castrating him which leads to intense castration anxiety  Boy resolves dilemma by identifying with the father  Lets the boy enjoy mother vicariously through dad without putting himself in danger  Identification – the process of becoming psychologically like the father; fathers beliefs and values form the superego o Electra Complex  Girl wants mother all to herself  Girl makes startling discovery that some people have penises and she does not  Convinces that she once had a penis and that mother had something to do with the loss  Girl experiences a strong desire to regain a penis – envy leads her to direct her sexual desires towards dad  Wants to get rid of mom, the penis thief and obstacle to the girls exclusive possession of dad  Realizes that mother is too big and strong to eliminate –resolves her dilemma by identifying with mom  Girls superego is formed from mothers believes and values o Because of the intense anxiety that the Oedipus and Electra complex generates in the child, most memories of the child’s sexual and aggressive impulses towards mom and dad are blocked from consciousness through repression o The sexual and aggressive libido that was attached to mom and dad but had to be withdrawn as the price of resolving the Oedipus and Electra complex returns to the id o Most of this libido will be redirected to other objects to objects that resemble mom or dad in some other way – either in appearance or personality, or in their role in the child’s life through displacement  Latency Stage – 6 years old to the end of puberty o A period of relative sexual quiescence o Libido appears to be channeled into behaviors which are not yet overtly sexual  Genital Stage - Puberty o The surge of hormones produces a new wave of libido o The specific direction our sexual interests and urges take depends on where libido was directed as we passed through he stages of childhood sexuality and what we did with the libido Video Lecture Psych 1X03 that was withdrawn from mom and dad during the resolution of the Oedipus or Electra complex  Fixation o Libido is attached to a specific erogenous zone at each stage o Some excess libido can be left behind at a specific stage o Eg/ If we fixated at the oral stage – our adulthood will be more heavily oral than usual  Excess libido directed toward eating, smoking or nail-biting o Eg/ If we fixated at the anal stage  Anal Expulsive – as children, fixated on pleasure from giving up feces – as adults become messy and disorganized, experiencing pleasure from giving things to others  Anal Retentive – as children, fixated on pleasure from holding onto feces – as adults become overly neat and orderly, but stingy, stubborn and rigid After Freud  Anna Freud o Freud’s youngest daughter o Expanded on Freud’s work by developing the role of the Ego in more detail o Endorsed the view that the Ego has a larger role than originally posed by Freud, and that is has energy of its own  Defense mechanisms – partially developed by Anna, called them Ego defenses o Application of Freud’s work to children outside of typical settings (such as children in war or in parentless homes)  Developed a system of diagnosis that allowed therapists to distinguish betwe
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