For every observed behaviour, there are many possible motivating factors
Attribution = how you assign cause and effect to certain circumstance
Situational attribution = behaviour attributed to the situation
Dispositional attribution = behaviour attributed to the disposition or traits of the individual
Jones and David’s Correspondent Inference Theory
o You actively analyze a person’s behaviour to make inferences based on three variables:
o Degree of Choice, Expectation, and the Intended consequences of the Behaviour
Degree of Choice
o Did they choose the behaviour?
o Uncommon behaviour gives us more information than common behaviour
Kelly’s Covariation Theory:
o Is a behaviour due to an individual’s personal disposition or the situation and
o 3 Variables: Consistency, Distinctiveness, and Consensus
Consistency: Does the individual usually behave this way in this situation?
Distinctiveness: Does the individual behave differently in different situations?
o Yes = behaviour probably driven by the situation
o No = behaviour driven my their disposition
Consensus: Do others behave similarly in this situation?
o Yes = behaviour probably due to the situation
o No = different behaviours probably due to each individual’s disposition
You often overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of
Fundamental Attribution Error = the tendency to over-value dispositional factors for the
observed behaviour of others while under-valuing situational factors
Actor Observer Effect = consider the situational factors of your own behaviour, but not of others
Fundamental Attribution Error more observed in Western culture
Western = more focus on individuals
Eastern = more focus of relationships
Self-Serving Bias = tendency to perceive yourself favourably
Above Average Effect = causes you to identify dispositional causes for successes and situational
causes for failures Cognitive Heuristics