Psychology 1X03: Personality 1
o Anytime you table someone as shy, considerate, talkative, sentimental, practical,
traditional, or adventurous, you are describing someone using personality traits
o THE PROBLEM: personality is not real, unlike the brain because it has no physical
o Personality: is an idea, an abstract concept that we use because it seems to express or
capture something important about our experiences. These abstracts concepts are often
referred to as "hypothetical constructs".
-Science is full of hypothetical
constructs that helps us to
organize and understand our
experiences. Ex. Short
term/long term memory. Also in
physical Sciences the force of
o TYPE APPORACH: assumes that there are a
small number of distinct personality types
o Greek Physician Hippocrates, the type of
approach was dominant in western thinking
until the 16th and 19th centuries
o believed that the human body was made of
four "humours": 1. BLOOD 2. PHLEGM
3.YELLO BILE 4. BLACK BILE
o EX. melancholic personality type. Melan for the
black, and cholic for bile. Someone of the
personality type of often sad and wistful Segment Freud & the Psychodynamic Approach
--His theory of personality was the first modern theory of
personality and had an enormous impact on our thinking about
personality and human nature.
--The influence of Freud's ideas go well beyond psychology, and
have become part of sociology, polo sci, philosophy, history, art,
religious studied and literacy criticism.
--The psychodynamic approach sees personality as a generated
by internal psychic structures or processes.
--The characteristics of internal structures in your mind, and the
way they interact with each other determines how we feel and
--Most psychodynamic theories argue that many of these
structures are unconscious, and so we are often unaware of many important aspects of our
FREUD`S TRIPARTITE MODEL
-- (The struggle among conscious and unconscious
influences represented among these three levels the
major motivating forces in humans )
--Seek Pleasure, avoid pain
--> The Id the source to your basic instincts and your
motivational energy that Freud named your libido.
--> Its the Id`s responsibility to seek out water, food,
air, and sex.
--> Freud refers to this function of the Id as the
pleasure principle. The Id is very selfish and
impatient. It wants pleasure now. It does not want to
wait for its pleasure; it wants it right now regardless of
how that behaviour would affect other people.
THE SUPEREGO: --> Superego is focused on upholding moral principles and has no interest in pleasure seeking.
--> Its goal is to ensure that you remain morally perfect, and obey rules and respect values
--> Comes into play around age 5-6 before then it was up to your parents to teach you the rules
that you should obey and values you should uphold throw reward and punishment
-->Self control is established to perform superego- your conscience stems from your superego
--> The ego is aware of what is going in there world
outside of the individual
-->The ego must find a balance between the desires of
the Id and the demands of the Superego, all the while
ensuring that is realistically possible to do so.
Both of the alternatives satisfy needs of (Id, Superego) -->The conscious ego is protected against anxiety by
defence mechanisms created by the unconscious
-->Defense mechanisms keep the conscious ego
from feeling anxious by keeping unacceptable id
impulses out of consciousness entirely, or by
distinguished id impulses so that the conscious ego
ones not feel anxious about them if they reach
-- >Repressed impulses sometimes sneak
into consciousness as slips of the tongue,
which are commonly called Freudian Slips, or
symbolically distinguished as dream
---> Unconscious ego justifies some conscious action
EX. if someone has been involved with a accidence and an argument turns out into a physical
one. The aggression generated from the Id conflicts with your superego, which believes that
violence is wrong. To resolve this conflict your ego might use rationalization and decide that you
became physical not because you were out of control, but because you were merely acting in
self-defense and that anyone in your situation would have acted similarly.
EEX. you really don't like your co-work and you're not
sure why. that makes you feel guilty. So instead you
may project your feelings on him and convince
yourself that it is real your co-worker who doesn't like
you. tThe unconscious ego redirects the forbidden impulse
away from its original target to a consciously
acceptable target, so that the conscious ego doesn't
feel any anxiety.
Ex. you may not like your boss and feel aggressive
towards him but you can't act on this aggression
because it is inappropriate so you end up fighting with
your friend instead.
o Sublimation is a special type of displacement, in which sexual or aggressive impulses
are displaced to objects or activates that are socially acceptable.
o Freud believed that all of our off called "higher" actives are due to sublimated libido, and
that sports, painting and sculpture, literature, even science, which we think as a rational
and emotion-free enterprise, is ultimately diverted from sexual and aggressive impulses
Psychodynamic approaches assumes that
personality is part genetic, but also allows
foe experiences to play a role in its
Freud described 5 stages if development
from birth to puberty.
What distinguishes one psychosexual stage
from the other is erogenous zone from which
the child gets the most sexual and
aggressive gratification. During each stage,
the child's pleasure obtained primarily from