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Lesson 5-Problem Solving.pdf

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McMaster University
Joe Kim

Problem Solving & Intelligence Module: Introduction Subtopic: Operational Definition of Intelligence
 important information, and cope with the demands of daily living
om experience, reason well, remember -intelligence involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from experience and adapt Module: Problem Solving Subtopic: Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
 ▯ • Deductive: General Idea --------> concrete Conclusion • More general information to the more specific. • “top-down” • top with a very broad spectrum of information and they work their way down to a specific conclusion. • Inductive: Fact --------> Idea • theArch of Knowledge involves creating theories and adapting those theories through experimentation Specific observations to broader generalizations and theories • • Begins with specific observations and measures, begins to then detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses to explore, and finally ends up developing some general conclusions or theories. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Subtopic: Insight Problems
 -problems that require you to think outside the box
 -Functioning Fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects Module:AHistory of Intelligence Testing Subtopic: The Qualities of a Test • Reliability: a reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times
 -repeated test produces consistent results • Validity: a valid test measure only the trait is supposed to be measuring Subtopic: Francis Galton • Recorded how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by reaction time; faster time, more intelligent Subtopic: Stanford-Binet Intelligent Test Produced test that included 30 short tasks related to everyday life (name parts of body, compare lengths • and weights, name objects in a picture and define words); all of these tasks required reasoning • This test was adjusted for different ages Subtopic: Charles Spearman & “G” • People who performed well on classical intelligence tests performed well on all kinds of tasks— vocabulary, math, special abilities and so on • One generalized intelligence ‘G’ • Only people with minimum ‘G’should be allowed to vote and only individuals with a base ‘G’level should be allowed to reproduce Subtopic: Multiple Intelligences • Howard Gardner proposed a multiple intelligence test • 8 different intelligences: verbal (linguistic), mathematical (logical), rhythmic (musical), spatial (visual), kinesthetic (bodily), interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic • Each intelligence is independent of others Module: Human Intelligence Subtopic:
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