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Lecture

Lesson 4- Instrumental Conditioning.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Lesson 4: Instrumental Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning Unit 1: Introduction • Instrumental Conditioning: The learning of a contingency between behaviour and consequence • Explicit training between voluntary behaviours and their consequences Unit 1: Instrumental Conditioning Thorndike: • Thorndike’s Experiment: measured time it took cat to learn to open door by pulling string The Puzzle Box • Frequency of random behaviours gradually decreased over time. • Suggests that animals follow a simple stimulus-response type process with little credit for consciousness. The Law of Effect: • Stamping In: behaviours like pulling the role were stamped in because they were followed by the favourable consequence of access to food Stamping Out: random behaviours such as turning in a circles • • Eventually, general process leads to refinement and the cat learns the contingency between the specific behaviour of rope pulling and the specific consequence of food reward The Law of Effect: behaviours with positive consequences are stamped in • • Those with negative consequences are stamped out Unit 3: Types of Instrumental Conditioning Four Consequences: Presentation of a positive reinforcer • • Presentation of a negative reinforcer • Removal of a negative reinforce Lesson 4: Instrumental Conditioning • Removal of a positive reinforce Reward Training: • Presentation of a positive reinforcer ----> reward training (Picture of dog receiving a treat, or person putting money into vending machine). Punishment Training: • Presentation of a negative reinforcer ----> punishment • Decrease in the behaviour being reinforced. • Must consider ethics of experiencing fear or pain in the recipient • Authority figure may become a signal for pain or distress; damage the relationship. Omission Training: • Removal of a positive reinforce ----> omission training • Version of omission training includes classic time-out Escape Training: • Removal of a negative reinforcer ----> escape training • Aconstant negative reinforcer being presented that the learner is motivated to have removed. By performing a specific response, the negative reinforcer can be removed which leads to an increase in that response behaviour. Conclusion: • Proceeds best when the consequence immediately follows the response. Unit 4:Acquisition and Shaping Contingencies: Learning the contingency between a response and its consequence • • Graphing response (cumulative recorder) ▯ Autoshaping: Lesson 4: Instrumental Conditioning • Animal, etc. will learn contingency on its own if placed in the environment without help from the instructor. Shaping: • Shaping by successive approximations: Complex behaviour can be organized into smaller steps which gradually build up to the full response we hope to condition • Each of these steps can be reinforced through rewards training ▯ Unit 5: Generalization and Discrimination The Discriminative Stimulus: • Discriminative stimulus (SD or S+) • Sdelta (S-) is a cue which indicates when the contingent relationship is not valid • SD indicated when the resp
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