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Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,058)
Joe Kim (989)
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Attention.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Semester
Fall

Description
Attention Consists of: 1. focusing limited mental resources on the immediate task 2. monitoring ongoing stimuli to evaluate their potential significance & shifting the allocation of mental resources when necessary -attn covers wide range "The ability to selectively focus, consciously/unconsciously, on relevant stimuli in our environment in order to navigate successfully & economically through daily experiences." -flashbulb memories: have "live" quality feeling Bottom Up & Top Down -2 way flow of info guides attn selection -bottom up: attn guided by salient stimuli/ environmental changes; automatic -top down: attn guided by conscious directed on order to meet goal; controlled Selection -attending to something causes objet of attn to be selected apart from un attended objects Ex. flashing lights -CONSCIOUS ability to attend to info relevant to goals -irrelevant info acts as noise -distraction make it difficult to be able to distinguish Automatic Processes -involuntary "capture" -fast, efficient -some cues seem more noticeable & lead to stronger/quicker association when paired w/ events -salience: something naturally popping out Controlled Processes -conscious attn -slow, effortful (more cognitive effort) Ex. driving a car -consciously choose to pay attn to environment -hard to consciously attend to many aspects of task-environment simultaneously b/c resources for ctrld process limited The Spotlight Model Selection & the Spotlight -as physical spotlight illuminates part of stage, attn spotlight focuses only on part of environment at a time -objects w/i spotlight=faster rxn time & higher accuracy Cueing -overt attending: the direction of attn is made clear through eye mvmts -cover attending: direction of attn not guided by eye mvmts, measured by spatial cueing, cues lead to faster target detection -exogenous cues: allow attn to be physically & automatically oriented -endogenous cues: allow attn to be consciously directed interpretation of cue info Spatial Cueing Paradigm -short time interval b/t cue & target (automatic) -when object fixed in "attn spotlight" tasks related will have increased accuracy & decreased rxn time (faster) Filter Models -auditory attn: ability to distinguish b/t sounds -Cherry; "cocktail party effect" -distinguish messages, "shadowing" -ability to separate sounds fr. background noise based on physical characteristics Filters & Attention -spotlight: enhance flower -filter: ignore grass, flower continues Broadbent's Single Filter Model -air traffic ctrl operators receiving multiple channels at once -used data fr. behavioural experiments to infer final stages of cognitive processing -attn filter selects important info based on physical characteristics -allows info to cont for further processing -info not passed through is eliminated Dichotic Listening Paradigm -headphones w/ diff message in each year -focus on attended ear (left) -subjects process no info fr. unattended ear (right)
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