Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
Psychology (4,979)
PSYCH 1XX3 (1,043)
Joe Kim (962)


4 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Joe Kim

Development Introduction to Psychology 1XX3 Introduction  Each of these levels of analysis frames different questions which lead to different answers to give you a richer understanding of complex problems. Overview  Development: gene-environment interactions across an individual’s lifespan.  Evolution: gene-environment interactions across the evolutionary history of a species.  Neuroscience: the study of the nervous system, and the neural basis of thought and behaviour. Introduction to Development Introduction to Development  Development: refers to the changes and continuities that occur within the individual between conception and death. o Maturation: the biologically-timed unfolding of changes within the individual.  How that plan unfolds is influenced by specific environmental conditions that shape the genetically-determined processes.  In the right environment, a particular genetic plan might lead Harlan to a maturation timeline in which he will grow his first baby tooth at 5 months, start walking at 12 months, enter puberty at 12 years, and finally die at 80 years. o Learning: the acquisition of neuronal representations of new information. Relatively permanent changes in our thoughts, behaviours, and feelings as a result of our experience. Interactionist Perspective  Interactionist Perspective: the view that holds that maturation and learning interact during development. Maturation and Learning  Some essential systems must be in place before learning proceeds. You won’t learn to walk until you’ve developed muscles in your torso and limbs and the ability to balance: you won’t talk until your mouth and tongue have reached a certain level of dexterity. o If a child was given proper nutrition but isolated in a dark room, never being allowed to play or interact with anyone. You would expect problems in developing normal vision, speech, and motor and social skills compared to any other child exposed to normal environmental stimulation. Studying Development Development  Many researchers who study human development focus much more on changes that occur in infancy and childhood compared to any other time in the lifespan.  Although there are subtle developmental changes through adulthood, changes that occur earlier in life are much more dramatic than those occurring later in life. Dramatic Changes Early in Life  Imagine tracking the developmental changes that occur in a five-year span of John’s life. The changes that take place in his life between ages 40-45 are much more subtle than the dramatic changes that take place in his life between ages 1-5.  Many researchers believe that the developmental changes that take place during these early years play an especially important role in shaping who you become. Habituation Procedure  One way to study an infant’s basic sensory capabilities is to use the habituation procedure to determine if an infant can detect the difference between two stimuli.  Infants normally tend to show interest in novel objects in the environment. That habituation process begins by repeatedly presenting the infant with the same stimulus, such as tone or a picture, while measuring changes in physiological responses, like head or eye movements.  When a novel stimulus is presented, an infant will initially show a burst of activity. As the same stimulus is repeatedly presented, the infant’s responses will return to baseline levels. At this point, the infant has demonstrated habituation to the stimulus.  Habituation: a decrease in the responsiveness to a stimulus following repeated presentation of the stimulus.  Dishabituation: an increase in the responsiveness to a stimulus that is somehow different from the habituated stimulus. Event-related Potentials  To measure event related potentials, a special cap with an array of electrodes is carefully placed on the scalp.  These sensitive electrodes can detect changes in electric activity across a population of neurons in the brain. The particular behaviour being measured will evoke changes in various brain regions of interest. High-Amplitude Sucking Method  Together, habituation and ERP provided complementary behavioural and neural measures to understand an infant’s sensory interactions with the environment.  One clever met
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 1XX3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.