Positive Symptoms: increased presentation in schizophrenic
Negative Symptoms: decreased presentation in schizophrenic
Catatonic Symptoms: movement behaviours not associated with environment
Positive Schizophrenic Symptoms: Disorders of thought, delusions, hallucinations
Delusions include the idea that events of objects have special significance, or
people are out to get them.
They would think that people on television are talking to them directly.
They believe that thoughts are either being taken out of their head, or people are
putting new thoughts in their head.
They often see things that aren’t there.
Negative Symptoms: point to a decrease in individuals engagement with the outside
world. They care less of what is happening in the world, and care more to what is going
on in their head. They would pay less attention to their family and friends.
Emotional Responsiveness: a person with flat affect shows very little emotional response.
A person with inappropriate affect show responses that are inappropriate to the situation
(laughing at death)
Catatonic Behaviour – involve a reduction in movement – sometimes not being able to
move at all – called catatonic rigidity. Catatonic can involve a waxy flexibility – body
parts can move in very weird ways, and then slowly move back.
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid – hallucinations, thought, affect, and motor behavior are normal. They
often show anger toward their hallucinations.
Catatonic – Strong motor disruption – stupor (rigidity), excitement
Disorganized – most severe type. Incoherent thought and speech. Disorganized
behavior. Possible motor disturbance. Social withdrawal.
Some types of schizophrenia do not fit into any subtype.
Causes of Schizophrenia – strong genetic component (diathesis stress hypothesis) of
schizophrenia. External factors (stress) may trigger genetic predisposition (People are at
higher risk of a family member has it). Identical twins are at higher risk then fraternal
more common in biological parents of adoptees than nonrelated relatives.
for many years chronic care was the only treatment.
Without treatment it is the most debilitating of all disorders.
Pharmacological treatment is now the most common therapy. But drugs are not
equally successful with all patients, or with all symptoms. Most drugs have side effects of their own. Some patients would rather experience
the schizophrenia symptoms than the drug side effects.
Psychotherapy does not help very much – only if used with drugs
CBT helps with environmental factors and helps the patient cope.
Family therapy helps families interact in a positive and supportive manner.
Dissociative disorders – symptoms that distance the individual from anxiety producing
events or memories.
dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
• manifests distinct personalities or alters
• at any time these alters dominates, taking charge of the persons behavior
• the person does not know about the existence of these alters
• alternative identities can be of different ages, sexes, races, intelligence,
• alternative personalities can have different allergies and reactions to drugs,
and different interests.
• Alters are creat