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PSYCH 2AA3 (402)


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Richard B Day

May 23 , 2013 Psych 2AA3: Child Development Intelligence Introduction - There are already different attitudes about education and nutrition that are passed on from generation to generation Measuring Intellectual Power - The first IQ tests  Alferd Binet and Theodore Simon (1905)  Identify children who might have difficulty in school  Cannot benefit in the traditional classroom and might benefit from a different system  Lewis Terman  Intelligence quotient (IQ) o Determine at what level a child is functioning o Metal age/chronological age X 100 = IQ  Only works for children under the age of 16 o 2/3rds of children are between 85 and 115 o IQ tests use different subscales to composite a intelligent scale - Norming data  For children they are age normed - All IQ test have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15  Anything from 85 to 115 is within the average  Estimate of where you fall not the actual score Changes in IQ Scores - Not a huge amount of change in IQ score as they are ranks - Both maturational and experiential variables influence IQ scores  As mental capacity increases there is an increase in improved performance on items of the test  Experiential factors, especially when it comes to the vocabulary sections of the test  Culturally specific information  Syllogisms about words you don’t understand  There is room for differences in this ways - Flynn effect  Historical shift upward of IQ Scores  Over the past 100 years  IQ scores remain the same as they continue to be re-normed  Absolute performance, the population worldwide has gotten smarter  Flynn affect has reached a plateau - Maturational variables attributed to health and nutrition improvements  Each generation has gotten smarter as a species overall as we have better access to health and nutrition, and environmental changes - Experiential elements increase due to environmental variables  Industrialization  Increases in technology have supported educational efforts  Preschool  More children attending school for a longer time  Cultural attitude towards education in the early years  More “testwise”  Better at taking tests  What kinds of items are on tests o Ex.: practicing puzzles  Led to differences in the way we think Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition - Modern IQ tests - Most widely used are under the Wechsler umbrella - Full Scale IQ score  Composed of:  Verbal comprehension index – vocabulary, describing similarities between objects, general information  Perceptual reasoning index: visual, spatial  Processing speed index: how fast or how many items  Working memory index - Helpful in determining a child’s intellectual strengths and weaknesses - Children do not receive IQ tests unless there is some reason for concern - Made up of different parts that come together to produce a composite score taking into account the different areas of intelligence Modern IQ Tests - Infant tests  Bayley scales of infant development  Measure sensory and motor skill development  Helpful in identifying infants and toddlers with serious developmental delays  Very poor at identifying future performance  Correlation between Bayley scale and other IQ tests taking later is very low o Types of things being tested change o Motor/sensory vs. language/memory - Popular tests – measure verbal and non-verbal problems ranging from very easy to very difficult  Stanford-Binet V  Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence, 4 edition (WPPSI-IV) for 2 ½ to 7-year olds (become more similar)  Wechsler intelligence scales for children, 4 edition (WISC-IV) for 6 to 16-year olds Achievement Tests - IQ tests measure a child’s basic capacity (underlying competence) while achievement test intend to measure what a child has actually learned (performance) - Measure actual performance on academic skills - Reading level, mathematical understanding, writing, and comparing to grade matched peers  Acknowledges that performance has a lot more to do with your actual educational experience  IQ tests independent of educational experience  How we define a learning disability Stability of Test Scores - Reliability  The stability of a test score  Beyond the age of 8  Comparing infant scores and age 8 scores, there is not strong stability  Within the average range the variability is quite profound  IQ scores are stable - Weak correlation between the Bayley Scales and later Stanford-Binet scores - By age 3, score similarities of IQ tests taken a few years apart are typically high  Increase stability by age 3  Being precocious in language shows a great influence  Children can show wide fluctuations  Influenced by specific life events which can cause the child to not perform well in a testing situation  Tend to show by and large a lot of stability  May reflect “bounce” or “rebound” – changes in response to specific life events What IQ Scores Predict - Validity  IQ is defined as that which an IQ tests measures  Predicts school performance  Children with high IQs tend to perform well academically  Whether a test is measuring what it is intended to measure – like school performance - Correlations between a child’s IQ and grades or other performance tests – between .45 and .60 - Predictive relationships hold true within each social class, gender and ethnic group - High intelligence (IQ)  Associated with resiliency  More likely to complete high school and attend college  Easier in resilient environments - Low intelligence (IQ)  Associated with adult illiteracy, delinquency, criminal behaviour  May add to a child’s vulnerability  Can be put at risk even in advantageous environments - Do not predict creativity, insight, “street smarts”, or the ability to read social cues, ex.: autism  A lot of practical skills that do not validate IQ - Has valid criticisms and decent predictive values Explaining Individual Differences in IQ Scores - Heredity  Identical twins are more like each other than fraternal twins  Adopted children IQs are similar to natural parents  Point to genetics underlying IQ - Graph of correlation  From adulthood onwards there is a difference between identical and fraternal twins  Identical are more strongly correlated  Younger children may have more similar experiences  Identical twins may have more divergent experiences or similar adult lives - Environment  Capron and Duyme – French adoptees  Upper-class families – 11 points higher than children reared in lower class families regardless of
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