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PSYCH 2AA3 (402)

Lecture 1 and 2 - Research Methods (2013 Fall).odt

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Jennifer Ostovich

Lecture 1 – Research Methods 1 Data Collection – case studies – Piaget did case studies on his own 3 children – gives us intense info about 1 or 2 or 3 people, – Freud is famous for this to try to understand how someone works – Major problems – Only 1 or limited person, more people we can make more generalizations – involves bias – Study of someone born a male, and an accident occured where boy was raises as a girl – What is gender? Boys are raised to be like boys, vice versa. – Male who lost male parts was raised like a girl, watched by scientist named Money – Miserable his whole life, money thought he'd be happy. Wrong – observational research – watching kids, you can ask alot of questions – Only observe, then you can come up with an experiment – Field experiment is when you interfere – Correlational research – If one variable correlates with another variable or two – survey study – ask people questions – structured interview – ask questions verbally with language of an appropriate level – parent reports, teacher reports, peer reports, all of a kid, for example – Retrospective reports – looking back. Inaccurate because we can't remember that well sometimes – Caveat (limitation): Causation – Can't have causation for correlational research, meaning you are sure 1 thing caused the other – Experimental research – random assignment – You randomly assign subjects to different groups – Very weirdly, studies show you get same height, weight, GPA, IQ between groups – Random assignment ---> causation – ex. effect of violent TV show vs sesame street on children aggression. – Compare across ages...can't random assign. Pre-existing difference – If they're different, we can't use causation – Types of experiments – True lab experiments – random assignments – in lab – Field Experiment – random assignment – in the field – Quasi expt (lab or field) – random assignment not possible on at least one variable – Must be very careful with interpretation – Can't be sure why there are differences between groups that started off different – Three main designs for studying age effects – cross sectional study – study different groups of people of different ages all at once – longitudinal – follow someone over time – sequential – combines these two things – Each design can use any data collection method – usually correlational or experimental – Cross sectional: – Pro – Cheap, quick – demonstrates age differences. – Cons – Cohort effect – group of people that share same historical experience in the same period of their lives. Ex. Ppl my age experienced 911 at age 8 vs people at age 25. Experience is different – ex. great depression – children who were pre teen were not affected cognitively compared to 4, 5 years younger – ex. sesame street actually made kids smarter, only at age 3 or younger compared to older – ex. attention span of 16 vs 25.Alot of access to things that ruin our attention span. Could find age difference, but could all be about experience with media – Can say nothing about how development occurs – Eg. continuous or discontinuous – continuous is that one learns something over time slowly – discontinuous is where there's a sudden “aha” moment and suddenly, you've changed or progressed into the next level of development Longitudinal design – Problem – May lose subjects ove
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