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Lecture

LectureNotesPSYCH2AP3Fall2011

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2AP3
Professor
Richard B Day
Semester
Fall

Description
INTRODUCTION TO ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY ththSeptember 8 and 9 Criteria of AbnormalityStatistical Deviance Criterion o Extreme deviations from the statistical normSociocultural Criterion o Extreme or important violations of social or cultural expectationsAdjustment Criterion o Danger to self or othersPersonal Disturbance Criterion o Symptoms cause significant concern for the individual One cannot just use one of the criterions you must use one or more at once to make a sound judgement Statistical Deviance CriterionExtreme deviation from the statistical normWhere the cutoff for diagnosis is very subjective making it problematicCan someone who is too happy or generous be classified as abnormalMany disorders are classified by the statistical criterion Sociocultural CriteriaCultural standards vary across time o Homosexuality was once an abnormality according to this criterionCultures differ in what they consider acceptable o What is classified as disorder can change very quickly o The word pregnant was not to said during any media broadcast nor could it be shown that two people are sharing one bed o Cultures have various acceptable pathologies o The word pathology essentially means something that isnt normal and needs improvingfixing o There are certain disorders that do only occur in such culturesIf disorders are brainbased they cannot be culturally relative o The sociocultural criteria isnt really used in North AmericaBut on the other hand o There are culturespecific disorders o Where do new illnesses come fromIn the 1950s dissociative identity disorder only reported seven cases worldwide Post traumatic stress disorder is a new addition to the DSM new disorders are constantly being added to the DSMo Thomas Szaszall mental illness culturalControversial author who stated that mental disorders are not real Adjustment CriteriaCould someone be dangerous but not abnormal What about terroristsWho decides who is dangerousWhat about altruistic selfsacrificeWho decides how adaptive an individuals functioning isProblems in finding a job maintaining a relationship etc Mentally healthy welleducated people turned out to be suicide bombers but arent classified as a mental disorderBehaviour is maladaptiveSymptoms are more psychological and not physical Personal Disturbance CriteriaWhat about those dangerous or detached from realities who are not concernedWhat about things that disturb us that dont seem pathologicalThose who think that they are finenothing is wrong with them but think that others are not normalAlcoholism and gambling isnt a disease Criteria SummaryNormally a combination of criteria usedNo clear line between normalcy and disorderAbnormality based on agreement of psychologists and psychiatristsPressures to include symptoms as disorders in DSMReliability is often more trusted with those who have the least experience becausethe more experienced you are the more fuzzy and unclear you are when it comes to abnormal psychologyThe DSM had to add so many disorders to their list because the United States Healthcare System doesnt cover certain things if they arent mentioned in there insurance purposesICDInternational Categorization of Disorders is the worldwide DSM the DSM is trying to slowly transfer to be more like ICD Psychopathology ModelsEvery term has different attributessymptoms attained to themWe have the Medical Psychodynamic Behavioural Sociocultural and Cognitive Models Medical ModelAbnormality caused by physical problems in the brainBegan with relationships between syphilis and mental symptomsBasis for pharmacological and physical treatmentsThe is the most used modelMental problems can arise from physical problemsPsychological proven can cause mental issuesCant separate mental and physical issuesTerminologysick mental illness nervous breakdown Psychodynamic ModelAbnormal thoughts and behaviours caused by unconscious conflictSame processes in normalcy abnormalityTreatment brings conflicts into consciousnessNothing psychically wrong but a maladaptive way to solve the issuedont even look at the physical aspectsCandidate disordersanxiety neurosis dissociative and somatoform disorders Behavioural ModelAbnormal behaviours are the disorderAbnormal behaviour acquired by learning then generalized inappropriatelyTreatment changes rewards conditions to produce extinction or relearningPhysically or mentallynot present one must look at their behaviour insteadBehaviours are rewarded thus people keep on doing it this is acquired by learningCandidate disordersanxiety thSeptember 13 Sociocultural ModelAbnormality results from social pressurespoverty unemployment etc o Conditions in ones environment can make a huge impact of the rise on mental disordersHigher rates of mental disorder at low socioeconomic levels o When you change the socioclimate then one can control mental disorders because low sociocultural means higher mental disorders o Political climate has turned into a more conservative government going away from helping the povertyCrime violence illness increase in times of economic challengeTreat by changing external conditionsEpigenetics is important to those studying anxiety and depression disorders
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