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Psych 2AP3 Lecture Jan 10.pdf

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McMaster University
Richard B Day

Abnormal Psych Lecture - Jan 10 Models of Psychopathology▯ Behavioral Model▯ ❖ abnormal behaviors ARE the disorder▯ ❖ the things that people say and do…they aren’t just symptoms they are the disorder▯ ❖ abnormal behaviour acquired by learning then generalized inappropriately ▯ ❖ reinforcement / classical conditioning rather than genetically acquired▯ ❖ all we would need to do is just change their behaviours for treatment - change reward conditions to produce extinction or relearning▯ ❖ Disorders: anxiety disorders, phobias▯ Sociocultural Model▯ ❖ abnormality results from social pressures - poverty, unemployment etc..▯ ❖ the poor have a higher prevalence of the disorder than the wealthy in many cases▯ ❖ crime, violence, illness increased in times of economic challenge▯ ❖ treat by changing external conditions▯ ❖ Disorders: Anxiety disorders, Depression▯ ❖ Problem: reduced popularity since 1980s bc lack of explanatory mechanisms - how do you explain how mental disorders come from these circumstances? it was unknown▯ ❖ there is no obvious therapeutical treatments - you can’t change their environment or give them a drug to change anything▯ ❖ the shift in the social climate - more conservative US political system doesn’t like the idea that society is the cause of mental disorders▯ ❖ NEW: epigenetic research suggests both a mechanism and treatment - MAJOR REVOLUTION in understanding of genetics. — discovered sets of chemical markers attached to the gene in our genome (epigenome) determine whether or not the gene is active. When genes are turned off, the cells become different types of cells etc…▯ ❖ our epigenome is affected by our experiences - how environment interacts with genetics and how it causes mental disorders▯ ❖ epigenomes can be passed on to children as well - means that what happens to you in your life can in fact affect your genetics▯ ▯ Social Factors and Mental Disorders▯ Miller and Chen (2007)▯ - high socioeconomic status (SES) vs low based on home ownership showed that with parents at 2-3 years old, high status predicts better gene regulation of inflammation responses in adolescent female children of those parents▯ ❖ the effect wasn’t due to current SES, current stress or health practices. it was based on how wealthy their parents were▯ ❖ the effect was not changed by later changes in SES▯ Schreier and Chen (2010)▯ - looked at SES of the kids parents when they were kids (how does your parents SES as a child affect the children’s blood pressure in adolescence)▯ ❖ low childhood SES of parents predicts higher
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