Class Notes (811,681)
Canada (494,867)
Psychology (4,979)
PSYCH 2B03 (299)

Eysenck’s PEN Theory (FULL).docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Richard B Day

Psych 2B03: Eysenck’s PEN Theory March 7 , 2012 Trait Theories - dominant approach to personality in research aspect - most popular trait based theories - Eysenck o pioneer of trait theories, but his theory not trait based PEN Theory - dates from 1940s/1950s and became significant in late 1950s/1960s and is extremely influential today - constructs from theory has shaped ideas of trait based theorists o concepts of extroversionist, neuroticism and psychoticism in trait based theories today - believed it is important for personality theories to consider personality at different levels of analysis o theory span different levels Model - necessary to analyze at number of levels of abstraction o from specific to most general - four levels of analysis o individual acts ( most basic)  lowest level  consists of individual behaviours/thoughts o habits  groups of individual acts that occur together o traits  sets of habits that are intercorrelated o factors  demensions  groups of intercorrelated traits - mix of learned characteristics and genetically built in characteristics o factors largely built in and innate  top levels are built in o specific habits and acts are learned  learning at bottom part - causal direction top  bottom o general tendencies ( factors) which are intercorrelated traits o traits cause us to put us in situations where we will learn things ( acts+ habits) - similar to Bandura and Mischel o behaviour shaping environment which shape us o general personality factors lead us to prefer certain situations over others - similar to Roger’s organismic processing value Factors (PEN Dimensions) - Extraversion/ Introversion o borrowed from Jung o intercorrelated traits  sociability, activity, assertiveness, sensation seeking, dominance, venturesomeness, carefree-ness ( high on extra version end of dimension) o extroversion  orientation towards outside world Psych 2B03: Eysenck’s PEN Theory March 7 , 2012  shows up in those traits o all of his factors were orthogonal  if I know where you fall on the introversion extraversion scale, it tells me nothing where you fall on neuroticism, stability scale  disagreement whether they are orthogonal - Neutroticism/ Stabiility o traits  emotional reactivity to stimulation  anxiousness, depression, low self-esteem, shyness, moodiness, tenseness, irrationality, emotionality ( high on neuroticism end of dimension)  uncorrelated dimensions Eysenck’s PEN Dimensions - Neuroticism/ Stability o associated with psychiatric disorders  depression, anxiety disorders o high emotional stability seems positive  positive in general but extreme stability is not a good thing  many professions where we would value an individual who is emotionally stable  but extreme stability = liability  deficit in particular circumstances o esp. in circumstances that involve relationships with others  person never aroused, shows emotion  hard to establish closeness  valuable in profession but drawback in relationships  extremes are maladaptive - Introversion/ Extroversion o no positive end/ no negative end o no value judgement o west  higher value on extroversion  prefer people to be extroverts  sociability o east  higher value on introversion end  being a part of group is valued in eastern cultures - was attracted to two dimension model because of the old humour model of personality o struck by fact that in literature that there was repeated description of types of individuals o there should be some truth to this if people held this view for so long o ideally would like to have a personality theorist that can include these personality types  gave way to encompass the humoural model  those at extremes you found the 4 types  stable extrovert = sanguine personality  neurotic extrovert= choleric  stable introvert= phlegmatic  neurotic introvert= melancholic o made model that made sense of type measures of sort - up until mid 1970s this was entire theory Psych 2B03: Eysenck’s PEN Theory March 7 , 2012 o reason was because he was obtaining participants among regular population and from individuals in hospitals o both settings this is what you see  adequately describe personality use these dimensions o worked with prisoners in 1960s and 1970s  there were aspects of personality not captured by these dimensions  proposed third orthogonal dimension - Psychoticism/ Ego Control o also uncorrelated o relative independence  but some argue that those who are introverts are more likely to be more neurotic o traits  aggressiveness, coldness, egocentricity, impulsivity, antisociality, unempathic, tough- mindedness, creativity Eysenck’s Personality Inventory (EPI) - like all theorists he constructed an instrument to assess the position of individuals along these dimensions - created before work with prisoners - measures extraversion and neuroticism o contains 57 questions  move toward ends of scales Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) - 90 items - measure all factors - I before Q o didn’t contain first dimension - 1975/1976 - if you look at questions, you can see why people are high on ego control o answer in ways that are hard for us to imagine - can give either EPI or EPQ o don’t need to assess psychoticism Arousal and Efficiency - was a curious fellow o wanted to know why people differ in their position on the scales of these dimensions o what is the nature of this physiologically of this difference  how are these people’s brains different  diff. between high and low  something about physiological functioning  had hypotheses - introversion/extroversion o there is a curvo-linear relationship between arousal and performance  more arousal = better performance  get to optimal arousal  performance is the best  if aroused more will have declined performance Psych 2B03: Eysenck’s PEN Theory March 7 , 2012 o performance gets worse o difference between introvert and extrovert is arousal of cortical  contains half of all cells  extroverts  under aroused cortex  aroused below optimal level of arousal  reticular activating system is not sending as many signals like that in introvert  underaroused  extroversion = compensation for under arousal o increase stimulation o increasing external stimulation = increase arousal  with arousal we will reach optimal level o happening at greater or lesser degree  if in middle, brain is already at optimum  not trying to get stimuli or getting rid o
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2B03

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.