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PSYCH 2H03 (134)

The Knowledge Network.docx

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Sandra Thoon

The Knowledge Network 10/28/2013 9:41:00 AM Recall…  Encoding Specificity: being underwater during learning will lead to beter recall when underwater  Knowledge is stored in a similar network: all knowledge is based on memory  Using knowledge is retrieving items from memory  Activation will spread from thinking about concept to things related to that concept – takes time for activations to fire, depending on how related they are  Ex. Activation for dog will spread quickly to tail, barking, furry – take more time for activation of cat Links Represent Knowledge – Semantic Networks  Hierarchy of categorical facts  Ex. “Is a” link – canary is a bird, bird is an animal  Properties of a category are stored with the category  Ex. Cats have claws  Facts are NOT stored redundantly at lower level – properties that are true of higher level categories are also true of lower level  Ex. Breathe stored with larger animal node, not individually with bird, cat, etc.  Activation spreads through network, but takes time depending on the distance travelled Sentence Verification Tasks – Measure RT  Giving statements to be identified as true or false  Ex. A canary can sing. A robin is an animal. Dogs have hearts. Cats can fly.  Measuring how QUICKLY participants can verify accuracy  Expect faster response times when knowledge nodes are directly linked to each other  Ex. Canary and sing nodes are closely linked in the web – fast  Ex. Robin is an animal – slower, because a bit farther apart in the web (animal up top, robin a branch)  Ex. Dogs have hearts – even slower - dog is an animal, animals have heart  Collins and Quillan (1969):  Category: found that longer reaction time is associated with extra links  Property: A canary can sing is only true of canaries – fastest. A canary can fly is stored with BIRD concept rather than CANARY concept. A canary has skin links with even higher level – ANIMAL node, takes longest. However…  How does this theory account for the typicality effects we discussed earlier?  Ex. More quickly to rate retriever as a dog than pug  Some information may be stored redundantly  Ex. Fast to say that peacocks have feather than sparrows have feathers – however, feathers should be stored with birds and peacock/sparrow should have same distance  Would need to store exceptions too (penguins are birds that CAN’T fly) Propositional Net
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