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pitch perception.docx

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Paul Faure

November 27 , 2013 Psych 3A03: Audition Pitch Perception Critical Bands as a Function of Frequency - A plot of ERB as a function of center frequency of critical band filter reveals that the critical bandwidth increases with increasing frequency - The shape of the critical band filter does not vary with frequency Critical Bands and Tone-on-Tone Masking - Assume listener detects probe signal by monitoring a critical band of frequencies centered on probe - Assume listener monitors different critical bands to detect different probe frequencies - The masking tone sets up a pattern of excitation - Neurons with CF closest to masker frequency will allow the most masker energy to pass - Excitation caused by masker spreads to a number of critical band internal filters Temporal Masking - So far we have dealt only with simultaneous masking conditions - Backward and forward temporal masking occurs for tones, clicks, noise, and speech - Masking thresholds increase as the time interval between the probe and masker decreases - Amount of masking is greatest at the temporal fringes of the masker, near the onset of offset of masker (i.e. overshoot of masking) - Time courses backwards and forward masking differs Temporal Masking Summary - Pre-masker: probe leads, no trouble detecting the probe but as the interval becomes shorter threshold increases - Post-masker: masker leads - Probe overlaps masker - Zwicker & Fastl, 1990: human psychophysical data - Effects of forward masking persist 3x longer than backward masking - Effects of backward masking are shorter Tone-Temporal Masking - Can use temporal masking paradigm to obtain psychophysical tuning curves in the same way as for simultaneous masking (SM) - Psychophysical tuning curves under forward masking (FM) are more sharply tuned (i.e. narrower) than during SM - Why is FM tuning curve narrower at higher frequencies?  Asymmetry in the envelope of the basilar membrane  Expect that for a masking tone that is closer to the base, due to the asymmetry of traveling wave envelope  Masker must be made louder to influence the probe, when it is at a higher frequency, due to the steep roll-off and asymmetry - SM condition: does not rise as quickly - However, the magnitude of masking is similar under the two conditions (FM versus SM) - When the masker is close to frequency with the probe: the threshold is lower Complex Masking - Can measure amount of masking in complex stimulus conditions, such as in presence of masking (M) tone and a second, suppressor (SU) tone under both forward masking (FM) and simultaneous masking (SM) - SM signal thresholds to complex masking are similar to previous data of Wegel and Lane - FM signal thresholds to complex masking can actually be lower than M only condition - The SU tone suppresses masking ability of M tone (i.e. the Sum tone unmasks the masking tone) - Suppressing tone is constant amplitud
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