Men’s LT Mate Preferences
• Reproductive success is the key
• If commitment is high then men’s reproductive success is high
Benefits of Commitment?
• Knowing it his (high paternity certainty)
• High offspring survivol
• Not enough females- forced to commit
• Could get infected if not
• Better quality mates- women will not let you access if don’t commit
To whom should Men Commit?
• Puzzle 1: ability to reproduce
• Got to be fertile, lot of healthy, quality babies
How to solve it?
• Attractiveness= adaptiveness
• Pretty= fertile
Puzzle 2: Paternity Uncertainty
• Men must select as LT mates women’s likely to have their babies
Obvious ovulation in non-human primates
• receptivity i.e. baboons (sticking out their butt)
• physical signs
Hidden Ovulation in Humans
• How can mean solve this problem?
• Preference for ovulating women- prettier at that time
• Jealousy, mate guarding
• Select for character- “unlikely” to cheat on you
Reproductive fitness 1: Youth
• Men’s reproductive success depends on women’s ability to reproduce
• Youth is a cue of reproductive fitness
• Reproductive value= expected reproduction of individual from their current age
• Peak is at around 19-20
• Fertility= # of viable offspring that you can produce now, peak fertility at mid-20s • Therefore, men should prefer women in this window
Research Evidence: Youth
• Yomomamo Indians of Amazon
- “moko dude”- women who are perfect to reproduce, just at the right age
• Buss- 37 cultures
- men prefer younger women
-magnitude of preferences varies across cultures
-data from men 20-24 average year old
• Some cultures it’s harder to get resources
Personal Ads Studies
• Preference for youth varies with men’s age (Kenrick and Keefe, 1992)
• When in 20’s, might take someone older up to 30
• In 60s, looking for someone is 53
• High difference in age, poor matching, poor quality in marriage
• High difference, high violence
But: why don’t older men go for 25 year old?
• Daly and Wilson (1989) on relationship violence
• Relative vs. absolute youth- relative to the men’s
Is Younger Always Better?
• Alternative to the evolutionary explanation?
-control hypothesis- nothing to do with fertility, just easier to control younger
• Teen Age Preferences- is youth itself is a cue or is it reproductive fitness?
• Kenrick et al (1996) study- would you date someone older, younger or same?
Max age, ideal and min age- for boys
-12 year olds want 16 years olds
-19 year olds want graduated (25?)
-peak reproductive value-getting there
-been through puberty! Not because of control
• Women’s data
-women accept 2 years younger
-4 years older is acceptable, 18- want 10 years older
• Men prefer with younger women- unless these younger women would not get be
reproductively fit • They older the men- the younger they want their mates to be
• Thus, keeping mates as close to peak reproductive fitness as possible
Men’s Preferences #2: Attractiveness
• Men’s adaptive problem select a reproductively fir LT mate
• Youth cues potential activity to bear many children
-likelihood of being fertile
• Attractiveness cues actual ability to bear many healthy children=fertile
What is Attractiveness?
• Is beauty is in the eye of the beholder?
- beauty is adaptation
• 3 components of attractiveness:
a. behaviour- vitality, facial expression
b. physical beauty
c. body size and composition
General Beauty Preferences
• Clleland and Beach (1991) on what US. men find attractive
- clear skin, nice hair
• Malinowski (1929) on what Trobriand Islanders find attractiveness
-health, hair (strong), full lips, smooth skin bright shining eyes
• What does healthy hair signal?
• Age, hair becomes brittle with age
• Men like lighter hair (youth)
• Health- when sick, gets brittle, thick hair is good and long
• Pregnancy lowers hair quality
• Reproductive history
• Heinzz et al (20