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Evolution- men's LT preferences.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Men’s LT Mate Preferences • Reproductive success is the key • If commitment is high then men’s reproductive success is high Benefits of Commitment? • Knowing it his (high paternity certainty) • High offspring survivol • Not enough females- forced to commit • Could get infected if not • Better quality mates- women will not let you access if don’t commit To whom should Men Commit? • Puzzle 1: ability to reproduce • Got to be fertile, lot of healthy, quality babies How to solve it? • Youth • Attractiveness= adaptiveness • Pretty= fertile Puzzle 2: Paternity Uncertainty • Men must select as LT mates women’s likely to have their babies Obvious ovulation in non-human primates • receptivity i.e. baboons (sticking out their butt) • physical signs Hidden Ovulation in Humans • How can mean solve this problem? • Preference for ovulating women- prettier at that time • Jealousy, mate guarding • Select for character- “unlikely” to cheat on you Reproductive fitness 1: Youth • Men’s reproductive success depends on women’s ability to reproduce • Youth is a cue of reproductive fitness • Reproductive value= expected reproduction of individual from their current age onward • Peak is at around 19-20 • Fertility= # of viable offspring that you can produce now, peak fertility at mid-20s • Therefore, men should prefer women in this window Research Evidence: Youth • Yomomamo Indians of Amazon - “moko dude”- women who are perfect to reproduce, just at the right age • Buss- 37 cultures - men prefer younger women -magnitude of preferences varies across cultures -data from men 20-24 average year old • Some cultures it’s harder to get resources Personal Ads Studies • Preference for youth varies with men’s age (Kenrick and Keefe, 1992) • When in 20’s, might take someone older up to 30 • In 60s, looking for someone is 53 • High difference in age, poor matching, poor quality in marriage • High difference, high violence But: why don’t older men go for 25 year old? • Daly and Wilson (1989) on relationship violence • Relative vs. absolute youth- relative to the men’s Is Younger Always Better? • Alternative to the evolutionary explanation? -control hypothesis- nothing to do with fertility, just easier to control younger women • Teen Age Preferences- is youth itself is a cue or is it reproductive fitness? • Kenrick et al (1996) study- would you date someone older, younger or same? Max age, ideal and min age- for boys -12 year olds want 16 years olds -19 year olds want graduated (25?) -peak reproductive value-getting there -been through puberty! Not because of control • Women’s data -women accept 2 years younger -4 years older is acceptable, 18- want 10 years older Summary • Men prefer with younger women- unless these younger women would not get be reproductively fit • They older the men- the younger they want their mates to be • Thus, keeping mates as close to peak reproductive fitness as possible Men’s Preferences #2: Attractiveness • Men’s adaptive problem select a reproductively fir LT mate • Youth cues potential activity to bear many children -reproductive value -likelihood of being fertile • Attractiveness cues actual ability to bear many healthy children=fertile What is Attractiveness? • Is beauty is in the eye of the beholder? - beauty is adaptation • 3 components of attractiveness: a. behaviour- vitality, facial expression b. physical beauty c. body size and composition General Beauty Preferences • Clleland and Beach (1991) on what US. men find attractive - clear skin, nice hair • Malinowski (1929) on what Trobriand Islanders find attractiveness -sore repulsive -health, hair (strong), full lips, smooth skin bright shining eyes Hair • What does healthy hair signal? • Age, hair becomes brittle with age • Men like lighter hair (youth) • Health- when sick, gets brittle, thick hair is good and long • Pregnancy lowers hair quality • Reproductive history Research evidence? • Heinzz et al (20
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