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3jj3 nov 7.docx

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Louis A Schmidt

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PSYCH 3JJ3- November 7, 2013 Ch. 9 – School and Media: Children in an Electronic Age Role of School in Social Development - Children today spend more time in school than ever before o US children now go to school an average of 5 hours a days, 180 days a year o In 1880, children in the US attended school only about 80 days a year - Children are also beginning school at younger ages and staying until older ages - The informal school agenda o Teaching the rules, norms, and values children need to get along in society o Helping children develop the skills they need to interact with their peers - Schools are important contexts of socialization - Schools as social communities o Sense of community develops from teachers, children, and school staff sharing goals and values and supporting each others` efforts o With a strong sense of school and a social community, children have more positive attitudes towards school, exhibit more pro-social behaviour, have fewer maladaptive behaviours - School size and organization o Large and small schools do not differ much in the variety of activities they offer o Participation in extracurricular activities is actually higher in smaller schools  In small schools, more positions than students to fill them and greater sense of obligation to participate o Participation in extracurricular activities is linked to a number of positive outcomes  Higher self esteem, better school attendance, higher achievement motivation, and lower likelihood of drinking or using drugs  Less likely to get involved in delinquent behaviour, become pregnant, experience depression, or commit suicide o Age groupings in schools  School transitions in different age based school organizations: 8(primary):4(high school) vs. 6(primary):3:3  Students transitioning to junior high in 7 grade (6-3-3) experience more social problems  Individual differences in response to transitions • Perceived diminished control or importance associated with stress and depression o Class size and organization – advantages of small classes  Teacher-child contacts are more frequent and personalized  Children are better behaved, interact more with their peers, and are less likely to be victimized  Smaller classes appear to promote an atmosphere in which students are more supportive and caring about each other  Cooperative learning • A teaching technique in which small groups of student work together • Goal is to maximize the learning of all students and create relationships among diverse children • This technique has a positive effect of children`s self esteem and increases their concern about peers and their willingness to help each other - The teacher`s impact – teacher-student relationships o Teacher – student conflict : child dislike of school, less helpful and cooperative, more aggressive o Dependency on teacher : low school engagement, aggressive or socially withdrawn o Close, warm relationship : higher school adjustment, self esteem, and peer acceptance - Particularly important for minority children o In one study, aggressive African American and Latino children who formed positive relationships with their 2 and 3 grade teachers were observed to be less aggressive one year later; however the association was not as strong among European American children - School-Family links – School Culture: Home Culture o Children from lower SES levels and minority ethnic groups generally have a more difficult time in school than white middle-class children o Why  Different set of cultural values and norm
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