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Nov 8 Lecture Week 11 - (Nov 5, 7,8) - Chapter 10 - PSYCH 3M03

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Aadil Merali Juma

LECTURE 11 PSYCH 3M03 Chapter 10: Happiness and Sadness October 28, Nov 5, 7, 8 2013 Ecology of Affect  Both subjective and social  Re-motivating self and others  Positive affect elicited by gains and success o Show happiness is excitatory o Duchene smile  Negative affect elicited by loss and failure o Show sadness – causes withdrawal, makes subdued, strategize and elicit change in behaviour (some adaptive value) o Mourning Human Affective Expression  People can interpret expression  More social animals have richer expression; same animals do not have the musculature to display certain emotion  Do not run as deep in evolution as fear, or rage  Facial – smile vs. frown, grimace  Posture – erect vs. slumped o Happiness goes further into body language than a smile – eg/ erect posture o Sadness – slumped; subordination postures of self minimization  Eg/ Maternal separation causes slumped posture  Activation – energizes vs. slow o Happiness – people become giddy  Vocalization – voice contours up or down o High pitched in reward o Ancient root  FAPs – laughter vs. crying o Crying  Eg/ bird, innate  First instance – to clear airways  Continuously elicited in discomfort after birth o Laughter  Stereotyped, elicited  Smiles o Emerges in early development, even in blind babies, in mother-infant interactions o Many meanings in adulthood  Appeasement – communicates that you mean no harm o Genuine (felt) smile – includes muscle around eyes  Duchene smile – elicited smile; stereotyped muscles in area around eyes and contour of mouth; elicited in times of joy and success o False smile – no cheek raising or eye wrinkles  Smirk o Positive affect becomes richer with smiling  Laughter o All cultures o Form seen in chimpanzees (wrestling, tickling) o Emergence in infancy o FAP that involves respiratory changes, facial movements, vocalization o Complex facial muscle changes, contraction of rib muscles  short broken sounds o Organization: brainstem + limbic  In infancy, forebrain is immature, yet laughter can occur o Social activity, tension release – can be contagious, bonding o Diffusion of aggression o Seen in primitive warfare (eg/ hunter gatherer groups), laugh with comrades  Crying o FAP – vocalization, posture, facial expression changes, respiratory changes o Distress vocalization seen in many other species, especially infants  When infant is separated from mother  Baby crying stimulates milk production in humans 1 LECTURE 11 PSYCH 3M03  Changes level of oxytocin and prolactin o Present at birth in people o Elicited by distress o Identifiable individual differences  Sexual dimorphic – both sexes cry, but individual differences o Can be used in manipulation  Mourning o Natural response to loss o Waves of dysphoria, somatic distress, crying o Subdued mood, like depression o Can persist for months o Behavioural changes o When loses family member, have to make major life changes – withdrawal allows for regrouping, rumination Depression  Components of Depression o Affective – dysphoria, facial expression, body posture (hunched), voice, anxiety o Social – difficulties, rejection, withdrawal o Cognitive – low self-esteem, feelings of helplessness, cognitive distortion o Behavioural – lack of initiative, difficulty engaging problems, inactivity o Physiological – sleep/appetite disturbances, Chronic HPA activation (cortisol), abnormal circadian rhythm, serotonin disruptions  Anaclitic Depression o Prolonged maternal deprivation o Human + monkey infants, toddlers o Babies were put into orphanages with strategy to care of physical, but not emotional needs – infant has gone through maternal separation, but get no emotional care o Phases 1. Initial protest – crying, reject others, actively seek mother – but mother doesn’t come 2. Despair – dysphoria, motor retardation, decreased response to environment low appetite, insomnia, agitation, “hopelessness”  Also seen in adult depression 3. Detachment – self-centered, resist new emotional bonds o Early difficulties with mother may lead to psychopathy  Childhood Depression o Less common than in adults o Cortisol higher with family instability, father absence, step fathers o Causes – family stress/discord, peer rejection, social isolation, parental loss, physical/emotional/sexual abuse o Expression – crying, inactivity, psychological disorders, rebellion Affect and Physiology  Monoamine and Affect o Natural serotonin (5-HT) influences affect; NE also plays a role o Monoamine dynamics respond to steroids and coping status o Foods/drugs raising 5-HT (+NE) raise mood o Drugs lowering monoamines lower moods  Subnormal state/depletion/exhausted – lower monoamines  lower affect o MAO (enzymes breaking down monoamines) influences mood  MAO breaks down monoamines  MAO inhibitor breaks down MAO o Drug treatment of depression exploits above  Inhibit enzyme MAO, can alleviate depression o NE circuitry – rising from locus ceruleus, stemming through MFB to cortex and limbic system o 5-HT circuitry – raphe nuclei, some descend through spinal cord, but most to pons and midbrain cell bodies rising through hypothalamus and MFB activating parts of the limbic system and neocortex  Cortisol and Depression o Classic signs of chronic stress and coping difficulty o Circadian rhythm disregulates: high levels all day/night  Cortisol typically high shortly after waking – nocturnal animals it is flipped  Correlates with activity, releasing stores of energy; causes psychological effects  Not sadder in morning than evening, injection would not make depressed  Higher levels of cortisol can result in higher affect 2 LECTURE 11 PSYCH 3M03  Rise above baseline if challenged by hard work or stressful stimulus – cortisol facilitates coping  Highest at wake, decreases throughout day, restores during sleep  Depression – failure to cope with stress; cortisol levels always much higher than normal (except at wakefulness)  may be consequence of stress (not cause) o Abnormal high cortisol is found in many cases of severe depression, indicating stress o Levels may be particularly high when they are lowest in normal people (i.e. late afternoon, evening) o Hypothalamic-pituitary control may be lost o Stage of exhaustion in general adaptation syndrome; defeat (aggression, psychosocially) o Cortisol (metabolic hormone)  Tryptophan and Serotonin (5HT) o Tryptophan is less abundant in diet than other amino acids o 5-HT is very sensitive to dietary tryptophan in many species  Rises with high tryptophan in meals  Load meal with tryptophan – rise in serotonin activity in brain  Decreases following ingestion of protein beverage devoid of tryptophan  Tryptophan in brain in subsequent hours, declines  Effects more profound with person who is depressed o Tryptophan competes with other amino acids for transport into CNS  Have active transporter taking amino acids into brain – all amino acids compete; more abundant amino acid will win out (ratio between amino acids, not only amount of tryptophan that affects which amino acid enters brain) o B vitamins; B9 (folic acid), B12 – critical for serotonin in the brain  Deficiencies have impact on mood o Nutrition is important o Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – bind with enzyme that is membrane bound on presynaptic serotonergic neuron (SERT); inhibit reuptake of serotonin (and other monoamines); leaves more serotonin in synapse o Serotonin Transporter (SERT)  SERT is a membrane protein that binds 5-HT  Transports 5-HT from the synapse back into presynaptic neurons  SERT is polymorphic among people, in ways that apparently relate t
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