PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - American Psychological Association, Edward B. Titchener, Cognitive Psychology
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Psych 1X03 Week One 9/14/2011 6:54:00 PM
All About Psychology
Uses the scientific method to collect evaluate and interpret
information to develop a conclusion.
Comes from the Greek words “psyche”, which means soul. And
“logos” meaning word.
People and Psychology
Proposed that certain parts of the body were connected to certain
parts of the brain to serve different functions.
Did an experiment were he destroyed certain parts of an animals
brain to see what it affected.
G. Stanley Hall
In 1892 founded the American Psychological Association (APA).
Multiple Levels Of Analysis
o What lies within a subjects mind.
o How do thoughts, memories, and emotions motivate our
o Focus’ on the physiological mechanisms that underlie
thoughts and behaviour.
o May be about the structure and function of the brain, the
molecular effects of neurotransmitters and hormones, and
how genetic factors contribute to behaviour.
o Reductionism – All human behaviour can be reduced to the
biology of the brain.
o Concerned with understanding how social, cultural and
learning interactions can influence thought and behaviour.
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Perspectives that use multiple levels of analysis include:
behavioural, evolution, neuroscience, social cultural, cognitive and
o Behavioural Perspective
Believes that overt behaviour is the only valid means of
measure in psychology.
What happens inside the “black box” should be
considered to be outside of the domain of science.
Behavioural perspective focus’ on the influence of the
“Nuture” over “Nature”
Behaviour Modification – an organism will repeat a
behaviour if it leads to something pleasant; an
organism will stop a behaviour if it leads to something
o Cognitive Perspective
Operates at the psychological level of analysis, not
concerned with describing the mind in terms of the
structure of the brain.
Models – Abstract representations of how the mind
functions; can be used to make predictions and design
o Neuroscience Perspective
Structural Neuroimaging – Allows us to see the
physical make-up of the brain.
Functional Neuroimaging – Allows us to see what the
brain is actually doing.
o Evolutionary Perspective
Wants to find the ultimate cause.
Interested in the influence of genetic and environmental
factors over millions of years.
o Developmental Perspective
How genetic and environmental factors contribute to
changes in behaviour across a lifespan.
Habituation – When you are accustomed to
something, it no longer acts as a stimulus.
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