PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - Jean Piaget, Inductive Reasoning, Flynn Effect

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Psych Week Six: Problem Solving & Intelligence 10/17/2011 2:34:00 PM
Intelligence
Involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capability to
learn from experience and adapt.
The cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience,
reason well, remember important information and cope with the
demands of daily living.
Deductive Reasoning
You come to a concrete conclusion based on a general idea.
Example: If Dr. Kim tells us that it is about to rain, we deduct that
soon the ground will be wet.
Example: In science, we use a theory to make a hypothesis.
Idea -> Conclusion
Inductive Reasoning
You generate a general idea given concrete information.
Example: If you wake up in the morning and notice the ground is
wet, you can use inductive reasoning to say that it must of rained
overnight.
Example: In science we use results in an experiment, then relate it
to the world.
Fact -> Idea
Insight Problem
A special category of problems that are designed to test your ability
to “think outside the box”.
Functional Fixedness
Our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects.
Reliability
A reliable test produces the same result if one person takes it
multiple times.
It is important for an intelligence test, because psychologists
assume that intelligence is a static, internal quality.
Validity
A valid test measures only the trait it is supposed to be measuring.
Does a given test actually measure your intelligence or your ability
to answer certain types of questions?
Charles Spearmen
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He was a firm believer in the idea of a single type of intelligence
called “G”.
Believed that people with only a minimum level of “G” should be
allowed to vote, and allowed to reproduce.
Flynn Effect
The mean score for intelligence testing in the population has been
steadily increasing.
Raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932.
May be due to increased quality of schooling, the increased access
to information and diet.
Jean Piaget
Believes that children are active learners, and by manipulating and
exploring their environments, children incorporate new information
into what they know.
He said that there were four stages of development, and that you
can only pass on to the next stage after developing a new schema:
Sensorimotor Stage
o 0-2 Years
o The child begins to recognize that he can affect change on his
environment.
o Begins to purposefully engage with the world and act with
intention.
o To move on to the next stage the child must understand
object permanence.
This is when the child realizes that objects can continue
to exist even when he can’t see them anymore.
Preoperational Stage
o 2-7 Years
o Has mastered object permanence, but has yet to understand
egocentrism, seriation, reversible relationships, and
conservation.
o Egocentrism
When the child has difficulty understanding the world
from a perspective other than their own.
o Seriation
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Document Summary

Psych week six: problem solving & intelligence 10/17/2011 2:34:00 pm. Involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capability to learn from experience and adapt. The cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information and cope with the demands of daily living. You come to a concrete conclusion based on a general idea. Example: if dr. kim tells us that it is about to rain, we deduct that soon the ground will be wet. Example: in science, we use a theory to make a hypothesis. You generate a general idea given concrete information. Example: if you wake up in the morning and notice the ground is wet, you can use inductive reasoning to say that it must of rained overnight. Example: in science we use results in an experiment, then relate it to the world. A special category of problems that are designed to test your ability to think outside the box .

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