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PSYCH 1XX3 Lecture Notes - Mental Disorder, Hand Washing, Classical Conditioning

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Joe Kim

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*** only guidelines
not necessarily label
someone as having
psychological disorder
*no single D alone can
diagnose psychological
Week 9: Psychopathology 1
-It is often hard to define what makes behavior abnormal (differ in culture, time
period, people)
fixed set of criteria to broadly define abnormalities “4 D’s”
1. Deviance
refers to having thoughts, emotions and behaviors that
fall far outside the standards of what others are doing
also includes those who fall well below and well above
the standard of group
2. Distress
person experiences intense negative feelings due to
their behavior (anxiety, sadness, despair)
exceptions: -bipolar patients in manic phase(extremely
elated and larger than life)
-antisocial patients (no remorse or distress)
3. Dysfunction
Behavior tends to interfere with persons ability to
function properly in daily lives.
Can not longer go to work & earn living, or run
Often “maladaptive” behaviors => prevent individual
adapting to environment.
4. Danger
Danger to oneself or another
Person engaging in risky behavior, lead to drug
Person engages in violence towards others
Some engage in risky behaviors everyday
Extreme sports, office workers with bad food + no
-Normal vs abnormal not clear-cut, need to properly diagnose/classify disorder
using guidelines from a book called; Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel, aka DSM.
-DSM has 2 main functions; provides standardized criteria to aid in diagnosis
1) Categorizes & describes mental disorders clinicians have
common set of criteria for applying diagnostic label to symptoms of
2) Allows researchers to talk about mental disorders using common

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Medical &
agree mental
disorder is
internal problem.
Disordered &
behaviors on
outside, are
symptoms of
internal problem
Suggests depression arises in individuals lacking social skills (make it difficult to elicit normal positive social
reinforcement from others)…may lead to lowered mood, self-blame of depression. But…depressive symptoms
may elicit sympathy, attention, concern=> lead to reinforcement of symptoms
-DSM as 2 main criteria; must be met before diagnosis, regardless of disorder
1) Disordered behavior must originate within the person, not as a
reaction to external factors (ex, person crying uncontrollably-
depression vs. lost family in car accident)
2) Disordered behavior must be involuntary, and person is unable
to control symptoms (rules out: person dressed up for football game,
or person on hunger strike for protest)
-DSM attempts to group similar disorders together (assumption that similarities
suggest common cause & can be similarly treated)
->but….some things change (researchers discover new information)
-->leads to…..changes in criteria for diagnosis & groupings of disorders
--->thus……new version of DSM is released
-DSM…ONLY describes pattern of symptoms
DOES NOT offer explanation for disorder or suggest treatment
-BUT having label for set of abnormal behaviors only helpful if an explanation or
treatment plan (DSM doesn’t have this)
SO…turn to models of psychopathology=> attempt to explain
-4 main models of psychopathology
1. Biological
Aka medical/disease model
Assumes psychological disorder result from malfunction in brain
Causes: physically damaged OR abnormal activity of chemicals in
brain; neurotransmitters
Points^^: genetics, nutrition, disease, stress
Treatment: drugs, electroconvulsive shock/ brain surgery (extreme
2. Psychodynamic
Earliest model
Pioneered by Freud
Believes mental disorder is rooted in internal malfunction (like
But… instead of physical, thought to be psychological malfunction
It is mind and processes….NOT physical brain not working properly
Attributed to maladaptive attempts to deal with strong, unconscious
conflicts, => Freud believe conflicts stem from unresolved childhood
Treatment: no physical therapy (can only alleviate symptoms)
Only psychological therapy; treatment must focus on
therapy to cope with underlying stressors
3. Behavioral
Disordered behaviors & emotions symptoms on internal problem,
instead behaviors/emotions are problem (external)
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