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Lecture 3

PSYCH 2AP3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Corpus Callosum, Group Dynamics, Chromosome


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2AP3
Professor
Richard B Day
Lecture
3

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| Neurodevelopmental Disorder: ADHD|
History of ADHD
First described in 1902 by Dr. George Still, English physician
Now most researched of all childhood disorders
Name changes over the years
o1960s: minimal brain Dysfunction (MBD)
o1970s: attention deficit disorder (ADD); +H or –H for presence of
hyperactivity
o1980s: ADD plus attention deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) fro those
with hyperactivity
Changes in the names suggest the changes in our knowledge of
this disorder
DSM-IV (1994) and DSM-5 use ADHD for all cases; three subtypes
DSM-5 ADHD Specifiers
ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-PI)
ADHD-Predominantly Hyperactive and Impulsive (ADHD-PHI)
ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C)
DSM-5 Criteria for ADHD-PI
6 of these 9 for a least 6 months (“often”)
ofails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes
ohas difficulty sustaining attention in work or play
odoes not seem to listen when spoken to directly
odoes not follow through on instructions; fails to finish work
ohas difficulty organizing tasks or activities
oeasily distracted by extraneous stimuli
odislikes or avoid task requiring sustained mental effort
oloses things necessary for tasks or activities
ooften forgetful in daily activities
DSM-5 Criteria for ADHD-PHI
6 of these 9 for at least 6 months (“often”)
ofidgets with or taps hands or feet and squirms in seat
oleaves seat in situation in which remaining seated is expected
oruns about or climbs in situation where it is inappropriate
o“on the go” or acts as if driven by a motor
ounable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly
otalk excessively
oblurts out answers before questions completed
ohas difficulty awaiting his or her turn
ointerrupts or intrudes on others

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Other Non-diagnostic Characteristics:
oGeneral social clumsiness:
Egocentric: unaware of how others see them
insensitive to convention, social expectations
Difficultly reading facial expression
aggressive tendencies
poor understanding of group dynamics; lack of social judgment
Epidemiology
Incidence and Prevalence
oIncidence
How many NEW cases in some time period? E.g 1 year
oPrevalence
How many existing cases in some time period
Point prevalence: how many cases now?
Annual prevalence: how many cases in past year (not same
as annual incidence)
Lifetime prevalence: how many people have it during their
lives?
Assessing Incidence and Prevalence
Cases per 100 population (%):
oEasy to understand, intuitive
oNot good for low frequency disorders
Cases per 10,000 population:
oUsed for low frequencies
oNot good for high frequency disorders
Clinical Estimates:
oHow many appear in clinics with disorder
oEasy and inexpensive to calculate
oLeads to underestimate of frequency
Underestimated because a lot of people don’t come in for
treatments that have the symptoms
Women much more likely to come in for help
Community estimates:
oHow many cases in community sample (select a sample of a population
and go and interview them)
oExpensive and time-consuming
oMost accurate estimate
Limitations of this: people may not want to tell you about their
symptoms
May not be completely honest, may down play their symptoms or
exaggerate them

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Incidence and Prevalence: ADHD
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