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Lecture 12

PSYCH 3B03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Autism Spectrum, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Leo KannerPremium

6 pages80 viewsFall 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 3B03
Professor
Vivian Lee
Lecture
12

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November 20/2018
Lecture 12 Autism Spectrum Disorder
Historical Context
- Leo Kanner 1943
o “Early Infantile Autism”
o Emphasizing early onset and symptoms of autistic aloneness
- Hans Asperger
o Described similar symptoms but mostly in boys
Autism
- DSM-IV used umbrella term Pervasive Developmental Disorder
- Characterized by TRIAD of impairments in:
o Social Interaction
o Communication
o Restricted, Repetitive
and Stereotyped
behaviour/interests
DSM-IV Classification for ASD
- 6 or more items
- Socialization
o Marked impairment in use of nonverbal behaviours like eye-gaze
o Failure to develop peer relationships
o Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests
o Lack of social or emotional reciprocity
- Communication
o Delay or total lack of the development of spoken language
o Marked impairment to initiate or sustain conversation with others
o Stereotyped or repetitive use of language
o Lack of varied spontaneous play or social imitative play
- Restricted, Repetitive and Stereotyped behaviour, interests, or activities
o Encompassing preoccupation with stereotyped and restricted interests
o Apparently inflexible adherence to specific non-functional routines and rituals
o Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (hand flapping, twisting)
o Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
DSM-IV Classification for Asperger’s Syndrome
- NO clinically significant delay in language and deficits in:
- Socialization at least 2
o Marked impairment in use of nonverbal behaviours like eye-gaze
o Failure to develop peer relationships
o Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests
o Lack of social or emotional reciprocity
- Restricted, Repetitive and Stereotyped behaviour, interests, activities at least 1
o Encompassing preoccupation with stereotyped and restricted interests
o Apparently inflexible adherence to specific non-functional routines and rituals
o Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (hand flapping, twisting)
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o Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
DSM Classification for PDD-NOS
- Severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction, or
verbal and nonverbal communication and stereotyped behaviours, interests
- BUT insufficient in number to meet the criteria another PDD
DSM-V
- Now lists Autism Spectrum Disorders
- Characterized by impairments in:
o Social Communication
o Restricted, Repetitive and Stereotyped behaviour/interests
Triad of Impairments
Social Interaction
- Social Orienting
o Less likely to orient toward social stimuli
- Join Attention
o Deficits in the initiation and following of joint attention
- Facial Processing
o Place less processing emphasis on configural and more emphasis on featural
information in faces
o Make less use of information available around the eyes
- Motor Imitation
o Deficits in spontaneous/prompted imitation of basic hand, facial and body
movements
- Responses to Emotion
o Deficits in emotion recognition
o Different reactions to the distress of others
Communication
- Language Delays
o 30% of children with autism never develop spoken language
In the rest, language development often delayed
o Verbalizations may be abnormal in pitch, tone and inflection
o Echolalia
o Disorders in pragmatics social use of language
- Conversations characterized by:
o Seemingly irrelevant details
o Inappropriate shifts in topic
o Lack of reciprocity in conversation
Restricted Behaviour and Interests
- Atypical and often odd behaviours/interests including:
o Repetitive Behaviours and Stereotypies
Include rocking, walking on toes, whirling and arm, hand or finger
flapping
o Insistence on Sameness
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