PSYCH 3CB3 Lecture Notes - Ingroups And Outgroups, Metacognition
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Persuasion: One- & Two-Factor Models 02/25/2014
Day 1- February 25th
1930s-70s: Defining factors that influence persuasion
Descriptive research-> what are the variables that effect attitude change/persuasion?
Many factors interact with each other
Few cases in which there were main effects
Mid to late 1970s: Move toward analytic research
Why do factors have the effects they do?
Models of Persuasion:
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
Heuristic-Systematic model (HSM)
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Understand why certain audiences comprehend certain messages and are
persuaded by certain sources.
Continuation of elaboration
Persuasive Message-> Message Elaboration
Different elaboration causes different effects
Elaboration is effected by:
Motivation- to do the processing of the message content
Personal relevance: issues important to them, how directly someone would be affected by something.
Accountability: to what extent will you be accountable for your views; must defend their beliefs
Need for cognition: high in this tend to process information much more, more likely to elaborate a message.
Attitude Congruence: need to have consistent attitudes
No distraction, pressure (cognitive flow)
Able to comprehend: extent that the arguments are clear and easy to process.
Relevant knowledge available.
Elaboration Thoughts about the message content
Unfavourable thoughts-> little persuasion (no attitude change)
Favourable thoughts-> attitude change towards message
Central route-> attitude change is based off the message content
Permanent and more accessible changes in attitude
Message Elaboration is low then one will rely on peripheral cues
Motivation is low to elaborate on the contents of the message
Ability is low
Rely on the source credibility, expertise
Mere exposure; conditioning
Use of the peripheral route to persuasion
Temporary attitude change OR no change
Context Cues: peripheral route
Elaboration: central route
Depends on the use of elaboration-> as elaboration increases the use of context cues decreases and start
to use the central route more than the peripheral route.
Testing the ELM
Processing motivation or ability (manipulations done in experiments).
Personal relevance of topic (motivation)
Extent of distraction (ability)
Strength of arguments
High Elaboration and Attitudes
More persuasion with strong arguments, more elaboration
Less persuasion with weak arguments, more elaboration
Strengthening of current position