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Department
Religious Studies
Course
RELIGST 2WW3
Professor
Joseph Wiebe
Semester
Summer

Description
Shamanism: An Ancient Tradition 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Questions  What does the narrator in the video mean when he claims that shamanism is an ―original‖ and ―pure‖ science?  What characteristics do shamans share?  What are two ways to become a shaman?  Explain the importance of: o Dreams o Dance  Objects carried by shamans  Why should shamans and biomedical doctors collaborate? The Split Horn: The Life of a Hmong Shaman in America 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Questions  Which parts of the health care system (in Kleinman‘s terms) do family members take part in during the film?  In Hmong theology, what causes sickness? How does the shaman heal a sick person?  How did the father become a shaman?  For what occasions does the shaman use soul calling ceremonies in the film? Day 2 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Elliot ―You are what you are afflicted by‖ how are we to think about the relationship between biology, culture, and identity?  The difference between treatment and enhancement  Enhancement is a reaction  Identity is the primarily for thinking about biology and culture.  How can you tell the difference between normal people and abnormal people Michel Foucault: The Birth of the Clinic  Change in relationship between disease and body  Change in medical space  Change in social/political realities also change medical practices and conceptions of disease/health  Change in how the world is seen  Medicine is no longer for a disease but for the bodies  There is a shift in the way we see the world. We take for granted. What we think of normal is constructive, it did not just change randomly The modern problem: finding the true self  Liberation or self creation? Is there a true self of liberation or self creation. Starting at a new place, with a new start  Should ugliness be treated?  New technology makes it more difficult to identify disease. Abortion can now we solved with a few machines  New language which is also a change in identity. Identity is also something abnormal.  Illness has become an identity. It used to be said that gays and lesbians are mentally sick, but now it is known as being normal  We should be able to change our identity to the way that we want to be  Persuasive language of authenticity  Gap between inner and outer? Normalization and common sense in medical practice and biomedical ethnics  Norms are constructed  Guevedoches – (penis at 12) – girls who are raised as boys.  Biology? Socialization? Third-sex category?  Common sense is local  Does enhancement alter or restore the self? Biology and culture: two sides of the same coin  Concepts are based in facts of nature  Perception of facts of nature are culturally conditioned  Pathologies are both biological and cultural and therefore deeply enmeshed with identity Self is neither created nor given, neither made nor born  ―Illness and health, disability and difference, cure and enhancement: it is a mistake to think there can be rigid distinctions here. This is because illness, health, disability and difference all are connected to a person‘s identity, her sense of who she is. A person‘s identity is not formed in isolation. It is always formed against a certain background, a culture and a history, in dialogue with other human beings. My self-description is connected to your description of me, and our descriptions of one another are connected to the descriptions of others. Thus what counts as an illness or disability—or on the other hand, as normal biological variation—will itself depend on its cultural and historical location.  ―But the reverse is also true. There may be no biology independent of culture, but neither is there culture independent of biology. How a given society conceives of its members, how the conceive of themselves, is connected to certain biological facts… There is no such thing as human nature without culture… [but also] the cultural is biological.‖ Carl Elliott, A Philosophical Disease, 48. Discussion Groups Question 1:  Talking about the culture shift  How it is socially constructed and socialization  Changing of the sex is normal now, but is a dramatic thing  To have a true self  How each person has a idea of how to be moral, and have a conscience and it guides us.  Taylor discusses what is moral in our conscience Question 2:  Authenticity is something we have to obtain rather than just being authentic  We are trying to be like society. Society is reflective to help us determine our morals  E.g., someone who wanted to do a sex change, for him to feel authentic, it may cost him, to make him feel authentic to someone‘s identity.  The authentic way, the more they look like a women, the more authentic they look to society.  Living in a higher life, and being in a authentic life.  If society tells us something that is right or wrong, but if someone tells you, you are either a girl or a boy. Someone‘s conscience is telling them to be a certain gender, this is how they differ  Page 38. Talks about being moral, and not turning yourself away from your true self. Being moral relates to being true to who you are. And being a fraud is when you are dishonest to your true self  Being a publisher, he was a vulnerable person. He made himself a bodybuilder, and he wouldn‘t be afraid anymore. Others would be afraid of him  That relates to, someone‘s feelings about their identity  Someone could be a Canadian, but they could actually be a Quebecois. Question 3:  Person who is actually a girl but a man, is relying on these technologies to make them back into their true self  Example of Carrie Grant: made him look at himself, and helped him discover who he really was  Got to know himself on the inside  He says that you can be deceived when looking into the mirror  They are wasting their life  Modifying one self to make the inner person more authentic, rather than fixing the physical aspects. Movie: The Split Horn: The Life of a Hmong Shaman in America Questions: Which parts of the health care system (in Kleinman‘s terms) do family members take part in during the film?  In Hmong theology, what causes sickness? How does the shaman heal a sick person?  The Hmong culture believe there are 7 souls. If one soul gets frightened away, or scared. It causes the person to become sick, or depressed.  When the soul drifts away, the healer can shake, catch the soul, and the sick will feel better How did the father become a shaman? For what occasions does the shaman use soul calling ceremonies in the film?  The spirits made him get sick, then he knew he must become a shaman.  Dad become a elementary student  Didn‘t know if they are allowed to practice their religion. People kept coming to talk about Christianity.  Dad says that if a person‘s nose if broken, he will die soon.  Promise to send uncle‘s soul to the ancestors  If the funeral does not go properly, the soul would come back and haunt us.  5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM 2WW3 Health, Healing, and Religion May 8, 2013 – Elliott: Intro; Chap. 1-3 Answer only those questions from the chapter to which your group has been assigned. You do not need to answer all three sets of questions. The Perfect Voice – Groups: 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 1. Summarize the two tensions of modern identity that Elliott highlights, between natural and artificial, and between self and self-presentation. Use his example of Stephan Hawking to illustrate these tensions.  The difference between artificial and natural o What's given is natural and what is created is artificial  The difference between self and self preservation o Who you are when you are with friends and who are when you are by yourself. Elliot us Bring attention to the distinction between private and public self 2. What is the difference between status and social class? How does ‗pretending‘ affect each? Use the discussion on accents to illustrate how pretending works or doesn‘t work to change status and social class.  The difference is between what other people think of you and what you think of yourself. Your beauty. Class is just a given. Accent is a act of given self. Like the British. If you pretend to be something, long enough, you will believe in what you are pretending.  Page 10-11 – Elliot talks about the difference between the British and American culture.  In American, You can sound like one way in a social situation and another way in another situation. But in the British accent. If you pretend to being something else is like a betrayal 3.Why does Elliott suggest that ―identity is better than enhancement as a framework for thinking about these technologies‖ and their moral significance?  Making connection between identity and…  Thinking of our identity as neutral  Elliot is drawing attention to, this may not be the case. They are not neutral  We have mix feelings about the end life  Chapter 1 all about Elliot trying to name and show us these mix feelings and make our self different The True Self – Groups: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 – (bottom of day 2). 1. How has authenticity become a moral ideal and what has it ―displaced‖ and hidden? How is it different than conscience‖? Use Charles Taylor to answer these questions. 2. Discuss the moral pull of authenticity. How do recognition and the feeling of being a fraud play into the drive toward authenticity? How is the authentic life a higher life? Use Elliott‘s example of Sam Fussell to illustrate your answers. 3. How does restoring a ―true self‖—achieving self-fulfillment—make enhancement technologies part of ―the governance of the soul‖? Use the example of Cary Grant and LSD to illustrate your answer. The Face Behind the Mask – Groups: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 1. What is the difference between personalities and characters? How does the emergence of personality bring about a new social anxiety, and how does that form the ―moral universe we have inherited‖? Use Elliott‘s discussion of self-help books to illustrate your answer.  Personality is our presentation to what we present others. And characters are our inner self.  Character has moral anticipations, character is universal,  Personality can be described as are you warm, exciting, boring person  Character can be described as how you act? 2. What is the architecture of the Western self (how the self is put together)? Use the distinction between performance and sincerity to explain this architecture.  Page 66 – where he lists the conditions of having anxiety.  How we think about ourselves  Chapter 2 page 42 43 , talking about carry grant – body modifications ends on the particular self.. 3. How is an enhancement technology such as Paxil show itself as distinctly part of American culture in the tag line ―Relieve the anxiety, and reveal the person‖? How does this affect the understanding of a ―true self‖ and that self‘s happiness or fulfillment? Use the comparison between American and Japanese social anxieties to illustrate your answer.  You are hiding who you really are, and being someone else.  Self fulfillment is not neutral,  Self fulfillment is not just for our self even though that‘s wha we think. Movie.. bringing out the dead Nicolas Cage Introduction – Movie 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM I came to realize that my work was less about saving lives than about bearing witness. I was a grief mop. The speaker is Frank, a paramedic whose journeys into the abyss of human misery provide the canvas for Martin Scorsese's "Bringing Out the Dead." There may be happiness somewhere in the city, but the barking voice on Frank's radio doesn't dispatch him there. His job is to arrive at a scene of violence, or collapse, and try to bring not only help but encouragement. "Do you have any music?" he asks the family of a man who seems dead of a heart attack. "I think it helps if you play something he liked." As the old man's Sinatra album plays in the background, he applies the defibrillator to his chest and shouts, "Clear!" The corpse jumps into life like a movie monster. The psychology is sound: Sinatra may not bring the dead to life, but he will give the family something to do, and the song will remind them of their dad's happier times. Frank is played by Nicolas Cage, seen in the movie's closeup with his eyes narrowed in pain. He cruises the streets of Hell's Kitchen with a series of three co-pilots, in a three-day stretch during which he drifts in and out of sanity; he has hallucinations of an 18-year-old homeless girl named Rose, whose life he failed to save, whose death he wants to redeem. Like Travis Bickle, the hero of Scorsese's "Taxi Driver" (1976), Frank travels the night streets like a boatman on the River Styx, while steam rises from manholes as if from the fires below. Travis wanted to save those who did not want saving. Frank finds those who desperately want help, but usually he is powerless. The movie is based on a novel by Joe Connelly, himself once a New York paramedic. The screenplay by Paul Schrader is another chapter in the most fruitful writer-director collaboration of the quarter century ("Taxi Driver," "Raging Bull," "The Last Temptation of Christ"). The film wisely has no real plot, because the paramedic's days have no beginning or goal, but are a limbo of extended horror. At one point, Frank hallucinates that he is helping pull people's bodies up out of the pavement, freeing them. To look at "Bringing Out the Dead"--to look, indeed, at almost any Scorsese film--is to be reminded that film ★★★★ Bringing Out the Dead Movie Review (1999) | Roger Ebert http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/bringing-out-the-dead-1999 1 of 3 13-05-13 10:59 AMcan touch us urgently and deeply. Scorsese is never on autopilot, never panders, never sells out, always goes for broke; to watch his films is to see a man risking his talent, not simply exercising it. He makes movies as well as they can be made, and I agree with an observation on the Harry Knowles Web site: You can enjoy a Scorsese film with the sound off, or with the sound on and the picture off. Now look at "Bringing Out the Dead." Three days in Frank's life. The first day his co-pilot is Larry (John Goodman), who deals with the grief by focusing on where his next meal is coming from. To Larry, it's a job, and you can't let it get to you. Day two, Frank works with Marcus (Ving Rhames), who is a gospel Christian and uses emergencies as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of Jesus; bringing one man back to life, he presents it as a miracle. He drives as if he hopes to arrive at the scene of an accident by causing it. On the third day, the day Christ rose from the dead, Frank's partner is Walls (Tom Sizemore), who is coming apart at the seams and wreaks havoc on hapless patients. Haunting Frank's thoughts as he cruises with these guys are two women. One is Rose, whose face peers up at him from every street corner. The other is Mary (Patricia Arquette), the daughter of the man who liked Sinatra. After her dad is transferred to an intensive care unit, his life, such as it is, consists of dying and being shocked back to life, 14 times one day, until Frank asks, "If he gets out, are you gonna follow him around with a defibrillator?" Mary is a former druggie, now clean and straight, and Frank--well, I was going to say he loves her, but this isn't one of those autopilot movies where the action hero has a romance in between the bloodshed. No, it's not love, it's need. He thinks they can save each other. Scorsese assembles the film as levels in an inferno. It contains some of his most brilliant sequences, particularly two visits to a high-rise drug house named the Oasis, where a dealer named Cy (Cliff Curtis) offers relief and surcease. Mary goes there one night when she cannot stand any more pain, and Frank follows to save her; that sets up a later sequence in which Frank treats Cy while he is dangling near death. All suffering ends at the same place, the emergency room of Our Lady of Perpetual Mercy (nickname: Perpetual Misry) where the receiving nurse (Mary Beth Hurt) knows most of the regulars by name. Nicolas Cage is an actor of great style and heedless emotional availability: He will go anywhere for a role, and this film is his best since "Leaving Las Vegas." I like the subtle way he and Scorsese embody what Frank has learned on the job, the little verbal formulas and quiet asides that help the bystanders at suffering. He embodies the tragedy of a man who has necessary work and is good at it, but in a job that is never, ever over. "Bringing Out the Dead" is an antidote to the immature intoxication with violence in a film like "Fight Club." It is not fun to get hit, it is not redeeming to cause pain, it does not make you a man when you fight, because fights are an admission that you are not smart enough to survive by your wits. "Fight Club" makes a cartoon of the mean streets that Scorsese sees unblinkingly. Bringing Out the Dead Movie Review (1999) | Roger Ebert http:// Moral Norms – Chapter 1 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Describes the normative and non-normative ethics. MISSED Moral Norms  Gives an overview of moral norms Normative and Non-Normative Ethnics  Normative ethnics o What should I do and how should I do it? Is it ethnical  Non-normative ethnics o Descriptive ethnics  Looking at beliefs and norms and how they govern norms o Meta ethnics  Analysis concepts, languages and ethnics – what's going on in these discussions The differences between Normative and Non-Normative?  Is and ought  Non-normative: describes and analysis  Normative: judges The Common Morality as Universal Morality  The nature of common morality  Ways of examining the common morality  We all behave a certain way so we can live together  Common Morality is for everyone, not one specific person; Don't lie, steal, kill Particular Moralities as non-universal  The nature of particular moralities o Example: you can lie of it saves a life.  Professional and Pubic Moralities o The rules of the profession is ethics. o Therapist: they have to follow rules so that the therapist and the client can work together, and the client can feel confortable to talk  The regulation and oversight of professional conduct o Restaurants must have rules to follow, like safety rules – following health Canada. Moral Dilemmas  The Tarasoff Case o Therapist has reason to believe that patience will harm the woman. Should the therapist tell the woman, but the therapist cant tell the woman because it violates the rules.  Moral dilemma vs. practical dilemma o Moral Dilemma: Two personal problems conflict one another. Moral dilemmas don't go away. The moral dilemmas don't solve the problem. They help us understand the problem. Moral norms are complex. o Practical Dilemma: Moral norms is in conflict with a non-moral reason  The limitations of impartial rules theory o They don't believe in one solution to a problem A framework of moral norms  Principles (4 principles) – should these norms be accepted despite religion or culture.  Respect for autonomy, non-malficcinty, vanethicents (PAGE 13 chapter 1)  Rules o Substantive rules o Authority rules o Procedural rules Conflicting Moral Norms  Prima facie obligations and rights – take it for what it is, don't judge. Innocent until proven guilty  Moral regret and residual obligation o Sophie is going to feel regret o Not regret like I shouldn‘t have done it, but how do I fix this.  Specifying principles and rules  Weighing and balancing – next slide. Conflicting Moral Norms: Weighing and Balancing  The process of weighing and balancing  Conditions that constrain balancing o Good reasons can be offered to act on the overriding norms rather than on the infringed norm o There is a realistic prospect of achieving the overriding norm o No morally preferable alternative is available o The lowest level of infringement is selected o 22-23 – the 6 conditions o all affected parties have been treated impartially Moral Diversity and Moral Disagreement  Given the complexity involved in applying moral norms to particular circumstances and the diversity of relative weights given to various moral norms in a pluralistic society, legitimate moral disagreement is bound to occur. In such cases, each party should attempt to show that his or her judgment rests on a more coherent and morally preferable set of specifications and interpretations of the common morality Bringing out the Dead  Frank is feeling alienated  He has the most meaningful existence  Hospital is a symbol of misery  Rose helps him detach from his misery  He feels guilty for all the people he has lost  He is using them for consent or for to feel good about himself or feels alienated 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Discussion Groups – The Identity Bazaar 1. How are ―the health of the self and the presentation of the self… so mutually dependent that to treat one is also to treat the other‖? Use the discussion on pharmaceutical companies that ―sell the illnesses they treat‖ and who are ―marketing the disease‖ they cure to connect health and self- presentation Page 109 – your hair growth Cosmetics for women As long as you look good, you are healthy Talking about side effects Page 122 – how the general population with poor health, makes the population look like they have poor self For the pharmacy should make drugs to make you look better. They sell things that they treat The society wants to look healthy – so they advertise drugs, by seeing the symptoms and prescribing you drugs accordingly. And they ASSUME that ―this‖ is what is wrong with you. They convince people that they need something, example: cigarettes they used to be like ―oh you need it now‖ they make you think you will be a healthier person if you take these. Panic disorder – page 124 Consumerism – makes people buy many things that you don't need The drug companies phone in and say you can get diagnosed for free but it really is the company paying for it. Group A : Page 88 – recognition Facebook works this way Self preservation Status updates – all about self preservations. You present yourself in the best way possible. Problem: it doesn‘t get the qualities, what does it take to know. Our Group: Group B You cant fix the psychology of a person, only the body. Healing at Lac Ste Anne 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Questions  What is being healed at this pilgrimage site?  What religious tradition(s) is this?  What is the significance of the lake?  Who is being healed?  How does healing occur? Moral Character – Chapter 2 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Moral Character  The concept of moral value o Actions are always by people, what's the relationship btw the agent and action o What I ought to be? Who am I? how am I living?  Virtues in profession roles o The person‘s concerns for others, who is acting and why? Characters are formed. How characters are molded, what are the intentions, the intentions and beliefs are by choice.  The virtue o The complex relationships that people have, who are you, and what are the forces that concetute you. o Internal motivation We are looking beyond morals and principles Despite this morals and obligations The concept of moral virtue Definitions of virtue: quality of character is socially valuable. Valuable to a specific groups Moral virtue: is morally valuable . not relative, moral virtue. Any number of virtue. More than just a disputation to harm someone. Does not come from falling principles. It does not describe rule following. Not A guy following the rules. Not doing it because someone else does it. Not blind imitation. Even if it‘s a good rule, and you are doing it because someone else Is doing it, it is not virtue. It includes desires. Its wanting to do it not for gain, but for sympathy. Do the right things, do them for the right reasons. Moral characters to do good things. To be a good person. Virtue is what makes a person good, determines what is good. Once these acts becomes habits, we become just. - A culture in which killing is a virtue. They maintain that moral language. No culture is saying to murder with moral. They would say that culture is not moral. Virtues in professional roles  Virtues in roles and practices o Moral characters is developed in traditions. What is your role in a profession. You have to meet these responsibilities, not just doing the right things, but also becoming apart of the tradition. To internalize your job. Don't imitate the right people. To become apart of a tradition, you don't do whatever you want, you have to learn the history, why you do what you do. The reasons and motivations of doing something. To do the internal goods, to have the right motivations. Internal goods: when teaching a child to play chess, you want the child to play and be good. You would start by saying, there will be gifts to play chess. You want the child to want to play chess. To appreciate the game for its own reasons. Not just the satisfaction of playing or winning. When they appreciate the good reasons for the game, they want to play, and have satisfaction of playing  The internal goods of tradition o Practice is not just practice, you need to know the standerds, that define the practice. Knowing these standards is not just memorizing these standards, to have them become your own desires. Hockey players: Sydney Crosby. More than just technical proficiency. He wouldn‘t just read and memorize the books, it‘s a matter of doing it over and over again. When it comes down to pass, he can make the decision because of practice over and over again. The virtue of caring A good medical practice has care. Not just cure.  Care versus Cure  Caring is skill. A ethic of care, is in personal relationships, by making them detachable. Our experience of hospital, the bedside, the experience of the doctors, their engagement with you, the way they talk to you. Care is Emotional rather then rational. Caring is not a matter of technic. Or following rules. It‘s a matter of character. The role one has with people because of the roles. Caring is complex, it involves standards of the institution. o Challenging impartiality o Relationship and emotion 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM 2WW3 Health, Healing, and Religion May 22, 2013 –Elliott: Chs. 7-9 Answer only the question from the chapter to which your group has been assigned. You do not need to answer all three sets of questions. Pilgrims and Strangers – Groups 3, 8, 11, 13, 15 1. Boredom is the “great problem of contemporary life.” How does the experience of “contemporary pilgrimage” address this problem? How is it different than “ancient pilgrimage”? • Page 170-171 • Ancient pilgrimages held in common was travel to a holy place, a place where miracles had happened or might happen again • The contemporary pilgrimage in contrast is a journey not to a holy place, a place made sacred by external frameworks of meaning but an interior journey in search of identity • The contemporary pilgrim leaves home to discover who she is – by leaving home you see yourself through the eyes of others • What is interesting about Griffins journey in the BLACK LIFE ME is that he is travelling but not really leaving home: he is a southerner traveling through the south • pg 183 - boredom becomes a problem • travel does not solve the problem of boredom, and this is not just because the novelty of travel runs out Useful Quotes: Resident Aliens – Groups 4, 6, 12, 14, 16 1. Why is it sometimes difficult to frame ―moral dilemmas as a matter of resisting oppression‖? Why are American bioethicists unhelpful for addressing this difficulty? 187-188 we like to think that moral experiences often resist forces. Limit my rights. Moral situations is being true to myself. Elliot is trying to show us how we have internalized these forces. Thinking of beauty. We see these cosmetic option to make us look like someone we want to look like. Our image of beauty has been impacted by cosmetics. Elliot – thinking of morals in those terms, American bioethicists, don't give us language of principles. Doesn‘t help to make us think of who the enemy is. The enemy is me. Elliot Useful Quotes: Amputees by Choice – Groups 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10 1. According to Elliott, what would it mean and what would it not mean if ―sexreassignment surgery and diagnoses of gender-identity disorder helped to create the growing number of cases we are seeing‖? 231 first full par. Takes these controversial topics, gender identity. Impact what the principles are, the philosophy, that guides our understanding. These are both, real, it actually happened, to real people and it was a product of cultural and historical process. These are real experiences, and cultural and historical experiences. We think of our experiences are our own. But Elliot is saying that certain experiences are technically, everyone‘s. Useful Quotes: In Her Own Time 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Questions for the film ―In her own time‖ 1. What kinds of healing ceremonies does Meyerhoff undergo?  A Mikveh. A purifying water drinking experience. Usually used for purifying orthodoxies before love making. Like a new wife or husband every month, 2. What does Myerhoff wish to heal?  Her lung Cancer Moral Status – Chapter 3 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Moral Status  The problem of moral status o How do we decide who has right and who doesn‘t? o Animals rights? o how do we decide who has rights and who doesn't? o animals rights? considered less than human interests? o how should we protect the vulnerable and weak in our society? o how do we determine/rank the degrees of vulnerability? o what makes someone vulnerable? o how do we weigh the benefits of taking advantage of vulnerable people against taking care of them? e.g. stem cell research & abortion o list on pg. 62 (who it is and..) o how to judge what is equal and what is not? o recognize that there are always people who are being considered less than others, less than a person e.g. Jews, Africans o we might simply want to say that we are all equal... o e.g. should a daughter with Alzheimer's be able to make the decision to place her mom in a nursing home? o Some parties have, how do we make things equal – how are we going to evaluate with different degrees of moral status?  Theories of moral status o Page 64 – 79 o A theory based on human properties  Only people who have distinctively human properties. Attractive cause no human is excluded from human status, no prejudice on accidental properties like religion, skin colour. Animals with intelligence, can make moral judgments. Vulnerable groups. Not letting you feel. Is it possible for someone to have moral status and they‘re not human. o A theory based on cognitive properties  The problem with this theory is that it does not evaluate infants and people with disability  The capacity to be happy and to feel – problem o A theory based on Moral Agencies  Determined by the capacity to make moral judgment, ability to do something for the right reason – because you think it‘s morally correct, not out of self interests  Two key ability – tell right from wrong – ability to have moral judgment (moral reason)  But this theory excludes psychopaths, people with dementia, etc.. o A theory based on Sentience  Feel pleasure and pain – moral status Pain is bad Pleasure good Do harm someone – is to do something wrong Min. pain Prevent or limit ppl antagonist towards pain The problem w/ this theory exclude early fetus and ppl w/ dementia  o A theory based on Relationships  Formal relationships with people who work closely together.  Some relationships are stronger and closer together. Social bonds, and significant relationships.  Non citizens think of rights based on non citizenship status. Only one that insufficient but also not necessary.  Each other theory has what the other theories doesn‘t have. This theory does not have to be included.  There are some r/ship that are stronger and significant than others Moral status is giving to ppl that socially interaction – not strangers or ppl excluded from social roles  Theories of Moral Status  From Theories to Practical Guidelines – 86-89 o Degrees of moral status  Individuals and groups may have moral status but not have status metaphorically. Or with the proper guidelines. o Guidelines governing moral status: putting specification to work  Sympathy and Impartiality o Moral status is connected to moral norms and also to moral character o More likely to conform with moral status to those with whom we have sympathy o They suggest we need to overcome this limitation o We most likely have moral sympathy with people who are close to us. o Help us be sympathetic towards people we are not so close with. o Its people who cant protect their own interest, but need to. o Distant from us, but they need protection. Having impartial perspective is important  Conclusion o ―There is justified uncertainty in arguments about the moral status of embryos, fetuses, brain-damaged humans, and animals used in research—and about whether there are degrees of moral status. Reasoned disagreement is to be expected, but those who engage these issues need to be clear about the models they use and their defense, a matter that has yet to be made abundantly clear in the literature of bioethics.‖ (p. 94) Midterm Review 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM 20 MC questions 1 essay question read conclusions Elliot Discussion Notes 5/6/2013 4:45:00 AM Elliot article - chs 1-3 The Perfect Voice – Groups: 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 1. Summarize the two tensions of modern identity that Elliott highlights, between natural and artificial, and between self and self-presentation. Use his example of Stephan Hawking to illustrate these tensions. artificial - computer generated voice difference is btwn what is given and what is created (electronic) distinct from voice he was born with difference btwn private & public self who you are when by self, and when in public Elliot trying to bring attention to distinction btwn public & private self and way artificial and natural self works with this 2. What is the difference between status and social class? How does ‗pretending‘ affect each? Use the discussion on accents to illustrate how pretending works or doesn‘t work to change status and social class. status - can come from number of things (education, etc.) -self-presentation class - is a given -place within a social hierarchy pg.10-11. difference btwn American & British systems accent imp. part of social class. your accent shows your social status if you pretend long enough, you become what you pretend mobility (self made man) in America is seen as positive in Britain, is seen as suspicious 3.Why does Elliott suggest that ―identity is better than enhancement as a framework for thinking about these technologies‖ and their moral significance? mixed feelings about technologies Elliot trying to show us that we have mixed feelings inability to make ourselves different through these technologies trying to draw this to our attention identity as framework for thinking about technologies instead of enhancement The True Self – Groups: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 1. How has authenticity become a moral ideal and what has it ―displaced‖ and hidden? How is it different than conscience‖? Use Charles Taylor to answer these questions. conscience has been displaced differentiation btwn conscience and authenticity Taylor is suggesting that what is shifted/displaced is that you're now listening to your inner self, aligning w/inner self to be authentic elimination of external .. 2. Discuss the moral pull of authenticity. How do recognition and the feeling of being a fraud play into the drive toward authenticity? How is the authentic life a higher life? Use Elliott‘s example of Sam Fussell to illustrate your answers. Fussel also needed to be recognized by other body builders wasn't satisfied by staying in apartment in NY moves to be part of community. in order to feel like he is a body builder, needs to be recognized by the body builder community not just that he is constructing self as body builder, needs recognition also afraid of being exposed to community that you are not who you say you are this is an example that is not narcissistic; he has his own anxieties that he is dealing with trying to conform to others, pressure from them not just constructing this identity by himself. needs some kind of group i.e. no matter how much we might try to deny the influences, this is not the case. the way we think of ourselves is fundamentally determined by society 3. How does restoring a ―true self‖—achieving self-fulfillment—make enhancement technologies part of ―the governance of the soul‖? Use the example of Cary Grant and LSD to illustrate your answer. personality and body are two outward things he is changing his inner personality, not body but still bringing self into line w/something else desire for being authentic is trying to eliminate differences The Face Behind the Mask – Groups: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 1. What is the difference between personalities and characters? How does the emergence of personality bring about a new social anxiety, and how does that form the ―moral universe we have inherited‖? Use Elliott‘s discussion of self-help books to illustrate your answer. personality: presentation of what we present others -similar to status -relies on what others think about us -e.g. are you warm, exciting, boring? character: inner self -has moral implications -something that is universal and objective constantly anxious about what others think of us i.e. "self help books" -telling you to be yourself, only listen to yourself.. but they're the one telling you to do that "moral universe" when you don't conform to certain type, becomes a problem e.g. Shyness -> social anxiety problem. we can fix that ! -emergence of new social anxiety that they can medicalize 2. What is the architecture of the Western self (how the self is put together)? Use the distinction between performance and sincerity to explain this architecture. Western self is insincere and more like a performance performance doesn't match inner feelings Harry Grant pg. 43 -> bottom of page. perception of self divi
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