RELIGST 2YY3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar I, Zimri-Lim

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1 RS 2YY3, September 22, 2015
Paula Jescu 1217623
Lecture #3: Sea Monsters, Pride, and other Chaos Monsters
RS 2YY3 September 22, 2015
Chaos Theory: Gods and Monsters
God Baal w/thunder bullet picture
Creation of order out of chaos
oParticularly primordial chaos waters: connected w/ Tehom or Ancient
Eastern goddess Tiamat
Chaos waters can cause destruction and creation
Chaos Mother: Tiamat - she gives birth to creation
Chaos Theory
Chaos has to destroy in order to create life
Not unusual - ex. Indians have goddess Kali
Life moves through stages of order and chaos and order, etc.
Chaos is not just the end of the world, but the beginning (eschatology: end of
an age)
Creation is associated w/apocalypses
In some senses, chaos is a creator, it acts as creator or acts in conjunction
w/another creator (divinity - God), and becomes associated w/other creators
Assumption - if there's going to be life, there is going to be chaos
So, what's the opposite of Chaos? Order? Death? OR is death chaos?
Paradox around chaos**
ANE Background
Picture of Marduk and Tiamat
Tiamat is a sea snake/sea monster
Marduk kills her - turns half her body into a dome for the sky and a =at piece
for the earth, and water underneath
oHer chaotic waters are organized into rivers and streams and out of her
body it nourishes the earth
oMarduk sets up the religious order on how to negotiate this chaos in
the world, how to keep order - set up religious rituals and made Babylon
the centre of the universe
oThere is a speci@c place from which all the order stands/is governed
oExemplary of connection between divine establishment (what God
creates) or order AND political and social establishment/order
ANE Ideology
Monsters were free agents
Neither gods or monsters were omnipotent, fought with each other,
sometimes humans were in the middle or sometimes fought the humans
When humans experienced overwhelming forces that brought death and tear
to village they would look to Gods for help
Monotheism started to become a dominant premise in Egypt under Amun -
monsters needed to be brought under one deity who is brought all the
knowledge and power
This meant monsters needed to be explained in a new way
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