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Lecture

l2.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCIOL 2Z03
Professor
David Young

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2Z03  January 15  Lecture: Concepts/ Variables: • Keep in mind that it is not always clear what variables and attributes best  represent/ measure our concepts  Eg. Religiosity • Attendance at place of worship? (Could ask in a survey, a variable) • Final Contributions? (Could ask in a survey, a variable) • Reading of sacred texts (Could ask in a survey, a variable) This is especially a problem in a social science, where it is difficult to define the things in  which we are interested in; eg. Inequality, justice, quality of life, social class etc. As social scientists, we are interested in whether or not there is a relationship between our  concepts (as measured by our variables) Education and Prejudice (N=20) • When there is not a statistic relationship it is a non­statistically significant  relationship. • If there is a relationship between the two variables it is statistically significant Independent Variable (IV or X): A Variable with values that are not problematic in an  analysis, but are taken as simply given; hypothesized to influence something else Dependent Variable (DV or Y): A variable assumed to depend on, or be caused by  another variable (X) Logic/ Theory often helps sort out which is x and which is y • Ie. Education and prejudice; age and crime In the social science it is not always clear which is the independent and which is the  dependent variable ie. Wealth and democracy. Research Types: • Exploratory: Usually done at the beginning of a project, to explore the  challenges/ opportunities for further study • Descriptive: simply describing the social phenomena • Explanatory: Understanding variation in phenomena by identifying casual  factors (Most research will have a
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