SOCIOL 4A03 Lecture Notes - Stereotype, Libido, Essentialism

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31 Jan 2013
-tend to find differences in aggression b/w men and women
-boys are more aggressive than girls and prefer violent toys and superheroes etc.
-when look at people in federal prison for violent crime, 90% are male
-sociobiologycan explain male aggression as an interaction b/w nature and nurture
-males are innately aggressive to some degree b/c of testosterone =nature
-nurture heightens that male aggression
-how you find your way somewhere
-differences b/w men and women (nature or nurture?)
-women tend to navigate based on landmarks whereas males tend to navigate spatially (N, S, E, W)
-the higher the testosterone level in men, the more likely they are to navigate spatially= nature
-evolutionary psychologiststhose who focus on nature
-human beings were hunter gatherers (hunted animals and gathered fruits and vegetables)
-men hunted and women gathered
-men travelled long distances from home when engaged in the hunt
-more effective to use spatial form of navigation
-evolutionmale navigation is better adapted to hunting
-natural selectionnature selects traits that work and so if selected, people live longer and able to pass that trait
on to their offspring
-gathering: done by women
-landmark navigation best adapted for gathering
-evolution and natural selection operate on both male and female
-women contributed 70% of food stuff and so there is no hint of male navigation being superior
-each is shaped by natural selection
-can find this type of gender stereotyping by interviewing parents w/n 24 hours of birth
-infants differ in anatomy (but look identical at birth)
-how do they describe male/female children?
-describe daughters as softer, finer features, weaker, smaller, prettier, more attentive
-describe sons as firmer, larger, better coordinated, alert, stronger, heartier
-gender is a category and it is assumed female infants have female qualities
-however, it was found that female infants are heartier
-infant mortality rateswhen child dies w/n first 6 months of life
-higher in boys than girls
-women are also found to be heartier than men and so they live longer (~8 years)
Why?-->women can live longer and overcome illness more effectively b/c they’re more important for reproduction
-when it comes to reproduction, men are dispensable (they produce millions of sperm whereas women produce 1
egg per month)
Sexuality and Gender:
Essentialism (nature) vs. constuctionism (nurture)
Sex vs. gender:
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