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Lecture 5

# SOCPSY 1Z03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Ice Cream Van, Western Electric, Hawthorne Effect

Department
Social Psychology
Course Code
SOCPSY 1Z03
Professor
Paul Glavin
Lecture
5

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Research Methods and Experiments- January 12th
Using particular methods is beneficial as it can be replicated
Research Methods
Methods for testing casual relationships between phenomena
Variable: Any characteristic or attribute that varies eg. Gender, age,
income (You can have multiple ages)
Quiz Question: Which of the following is not a variable?
a)Celsius
b)Weight
c) IQ
d)Speed of light (Such variable does not change)
e) GPA
Variables
Independent Variable (x)
-A variable that has an effect on another variable (causes something
to change)
Dependent Variables (Y)
-The outcome or the variable that is being caused by the IV (casual
relationship between gender (iv) and income (dp))
Extraneous Variables (Z)
-Possible other variable that might account for the relationship between
X and Y (negative variables which might be the result between x and y)
Causality
X Y
1. Temporal Order (need to be able to prove that x exists before y
2. Co-variation (Association or correlation) there is a pattern in which they
move together
-BUT: correlation =/ causation
3. Non-Spuriousness (Absence of other reasons- there is something else
going on with x to cause y. Ex: ice cream van killer theory: homicide rates,
number of rates between homicide and number of ice cream trucks. When
there are more ice cream trucks around there are more homicides. There
is a pattern. Thus, homicides are a result of ice cream trucks. Ice cream
Trucks are the DV and Homicide is IV. Non-spuriousness factor in this
theory is that temperature caused homicide. When its warmer, it can lead
to more violence. More homicides in the summer with the presence of ice
cream trucks
Spurious Relationships
Two types of validity
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