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Lecture #5 - Axial Skeleton.doc

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Queen's University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
ANAT 101
Richard Oko

Lecture #5 - Axial Skeleton Axial Skeleton • composed of 1) skull 2) vertebral column 3) thoracic cage • framework that supports/protects the brain, spinal cord, and organs • attachment site for muscles Terminology suture: rigid joint between two bones sinus: air-filled cavities articulation: location at which two or more bones make contact THE SKULL protect the brain, guard entrances to digestive and respiratory systems • • houses special sense organs for smell, taste, hearing, balance, sight • made of 22 bones 1) Cranium (8 bones) 2) Face (14 bones) Bones of the Cranium (8) • frontal bone -> forms forehead -supra-orbital foramen -> hole above the eye orbit -frontal sinuses -> makes bone lighter; produces mucus that cleans + moistens nasal cavities parietal bones (2) -> posterior to frontal bone • -sagittal suture -> formed by interlock of parietal bones -coronal suture -> articulation formed by parietal bones and frontal bone • temporal bones (2) -> form part of both sides of cranium and zygomatic arches -zygomatic process of temporal bone (ZP) (part of zygomatic arch) -external acoustic meatus (E) -> leads to eardrum Lecture #5 - Axial Skeleton -mastoid process (M) -> site of attachment of muscles that rotate/extend head -styloid process (S) -> sharp, pointy -mandibular fossa (groove/indentation) -> marks point of articulation with lower jaw • occipital bone -> forms posterior and inferior portions of cranium -lamboid suture -> where occipital bone contacts parietal bones -foramen magnum -> connects cranial cavity with vertebral canal -occipital condyles -> sites of articulation between skull and first vertebrae of neck • sphenoid bone -> forms part of the floor of cranium; acts like a bridge; looks like a butterfly -greater wings -lesser wings -sella turcica -> central depression where ‘wings’extend to; encloses pituitary gland -sphenoidal sinuses Lecture #5 - Axial Skeleton • ethmoid bone -> anterior to sphenoid bone -crista galli -> ridge that projects above superior surface of ethmoid bone -cribiform plate -> have holes that permit passage of olfactory nerves (sense of smell) -conchae of Ethmoid bone -superior nasal conchae -middle nasal conchae -ethmoidal sinuses Bones of the Face (14) • maxillary bones (2) -> form floor and medial orbit, lateral walls of nasal cavity, most of hard palate Lecture #5 - Axial Skeleton • palatine bones (2) -> form posterior surface of hard palate (food of mouth) • vomer -> part of bony septum • nasal bones (2) -> form bridge of nose • lacrimal bones (2) -> located within orbit, on its medial surface (lacrimae, tears) • inferior nasal conchae (2) -> forms part of lateral wall, deflect air towards olfactory receptors Lecture #5 - Axial Skeleton • zygomatic
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