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BIOL 103 (255)

population mortality

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BIOL 103
Sidney Eve Matrix

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 In populations where mortality rates are high, individuals tend to breed earlier in life  Read example on mainland and island opossums. Pg. 500-502.  Populations have not evolved longer life spans because the power of natural selection declines with age  In summary: o Evolutionary theory of senescence hinges on the observation that the power of natural selection declines late in life o This is because most individuals die, due to predators, diseases or accidents-before reaching late in life o Two mechanisms can lead to the evolution of senescence:  Deleterious mutations whose effects occur late in life can accumulate in populations  When there are trade-offs between reproduction and maintenance, selection may favour investing in early reproduction even at the expense of maintaining cells and tissues in good repair o Evolutionary theory of senescence has been successful in explaining variation in life history among populations and species 13.3- How Many Offspring Should an Individual Produce in a Given Year?  The more offspring a parent (or pair of parents) attempts to raise at once, the less time and energy the parent can devote to caring for each one Clutch Size in Birds  Selection will favour the clutch size that produces the most surviving offspring  Any individual offspring will survive decreases with increasing clutch size  The abiliiity of the parents to feed any individual
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