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Lecture 16

BIOL 103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: T Helper Cell, Reverse Transcriptase, Urea Cycle

Course Code
BIOL 103
Virginia K Walker

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Monday, February 12, 2018
Week 6 Lecture 16: HIV and Immunity part II
BIOL 103
Prof: Dr. Virginia Walker
Phone: 613-533-6123
Office: biosci 2522
office hours: mon 2:20—> and wed 1:20—> by the walrus
Other tested therapies
Could use integrase inhibitors; no cDNA copy inserted into host chromosome and inhibits
urea cycle
CCRF - kinekine receptors
Deletion in receptor so it doesn’t stick up very far from membrane, therefore difficult to
interact w/ it
High proportion of ppl w/ this mutation - 10% in Caucasian population, maybe 1% have
homozygous deletion
Could be mutation developed to resist smallpox
Ppl take combinations of drugs / therapies
HIV fights back: evasion of immune system
If don’t take drugs, can’t expect to live more than 10 yrs
reverse transcriptase (RT; no editing capability) = a high mutation rate
more mutations may be generated by RT ‘switching’ b/w the 2 template RNAs
Challenge for antibody production w/ ‘icing’ of carbohydrates on the gp120s
Free gp 120s can circulate
Mark unaffected helper T cell, NK makes perforin and “blow up” cell
the provirus ‘hides out’ in cells during the latent stage
an HIV protein (Nef) directs MHC 1 to the lysosomes so they don’t get to the Golgi and
the membrane
many of HIV’s proteins are covered by host cell membrane
HIV is ‘cloaked’ in host membrane - can’t be seen
body tries hard to respond, but it’s a losing battle
huge output of virions ~ 109 / day
Billions of viruses and infected cells are destroyed per day w/ production of 109 helper T
cells per day
proviral integration into chromosomes can cause cancers
HIV proteins cross blood-brain barrier (microglial cells) and acts as toxin to give AIDS-
associated dementia
immune system is exhausted and when another infection comes along, there’s nothing left
to fight
results in death
evading the immune system: what about other pathogens?
HIV has high mutation rate
I.e. trypanosomes (spread by tsetse flies and causes type of sleeping sickness)
I.e. gonorrhoea (bacterium that causes a general disease have different pills genes)
~ 60 mil cases in world per year
Dif genes
find more resources at
find more resources at
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