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Lecture note set 1 boag.docx

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Queen's University
BIOL 103
Peter T Boag

Lecture note set #1  Evolution and Diversity Communities o Several species interacting with one another o Organs organisms populations  Ecosystem biosphere Required reading o Dobzhansky (1973) o Why knowing something about evolution/ science is essential for everyday life o Understand main concepts Required Video o Charles Darwin: Evolution’s Voice o Background on Darwin, how his idea of evolution formed Clicker o When was Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’first published? 1859 Natural o Always act on individual success Selection o Rarely selects species as a group to be better Evolution o Process in which inherited changes in populations accumulate o Great diversity of life, forms have changed over time  pattern of evolution o Not considered a theory fact o Theory is a currently accepted idea, theory of evolution by natural selection Darwinian o An individuals ability to survive and reproduce relative to others in the same Fitness population, doesn’t just refer to how healthy it is. o Those with high fitness are favoured by natural selection Population o Group of individuals of one species living in one geopgraphic are & sharing the same gene pool o Mating occurs at random, same chance for each Species o Share common ancestors, organisms with common structures, functions, behaviours o Able to freely interbreed in nature because they are genetically similar enough Natural o Darwin & Wallace Selection Theory based on 4 observations: Survival was o Variation in phenotype (size, shape, behavior) exist among individuals non random o High reproductive potential means population increase geometrically reproduction exceeds what environment can support o Individuals compete for limited resources o ‘fit’offspring with characteristics (phenotypes) matching current environment more likely to survive and reproduce o missing link cant have natural selection acting on phenotypic variation, can have natural selection wont lead to evolution unless it is a genetically determined trait o how can you have complex things like the human eye evolve in a few generations? It doesn’t  thousands of generations Evidence o fossil record most direct evidence, pattern of evolution, extinction or gradual supporting change evolution o biogeography o selective breeding o convergent evolution o homogies anatomical, developmental, molecular` Fossils and o direct evidence in layered sediment Geology o unicellular to organisms of today o life evolved through time, Earth is old o lisle first modern geologist, Darwin read his book while in SouthAmerica, the earth can change in a matter of hours… over thousand of years the change can be bigger o Fossils uplifted from ancient sea beds indicated age and dynamic nature of both geology and biology Fossil o Ex evolution of whales intermediates o Whales and hippos evolved in parallel from ancient artidactyls o Whales, 2ndary aquatic group of mammals Deep time o Slow processes lead to complicated outcomes o Took billions of years for the fundamental mechanisms of life to fully develop Geographic o Darwin noticed every continent had a group of flightless birds that looked very Distributions similar they were related, shared characteristics o The didn’t understand continental drift ratites from Godwana Artificial o Producing new varieties with desired characteristics selection o Artificial can be used for an analogy of how natural selection actually works o Natural selection  random walk ensures the fit with current population and environment o Evolution is not going towards ‘better’it just happens that way sometimes Brassica o Same specie
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