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Chapter 14.docx

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Queen's University
BIOL 302
Laurene M Ratcliffe

PREDATION: Chapter 14 (all except pg. 356-363) OUTLINE a) 5 kinds of consumer-resource exploitation: herbivores, carnivores, parasites, parasitoids and cannibals b) Impacts of predators on prey i) Limiting prey pop (mites, skunks and sea lampreys) ii) Couple pop oscillations (Gause) iii) Non-consumptive effects: “the ecology of fear” c) Modelling predator-prey dynamics  functional and numerical responses d) How prey pop withstand predation pressure e) CASE STUDY on predator-prey oscillations: what drives the 10 year cycle of the snowshoe hare? (Krebs et al 1995) Consumer-resource exploitation includes: - Carnivores: kill and consume prey, remove from population - Parasites: consume live host, but don’t remove - Parasitoids: lay eggs on host, host consumed and removed - Herbivores: may act as predators (kill fruits/seeds) but more often browse plants without killing - Cannibals: predator and prey are same species (rare, often special circumstances associated with sexual selection) - *exploitation: interaction between populations that enhances fitness of one individual while reducing fitness of the exploited individual  Predators can control prey populations: strawberry plots infested by cyclamen mites  Invading sea lampreys and great lakes sea trout: invasion of sea lampreys in 1930 resulted in collapse of the sea trout population. Impacts of predators - Both field and lab studies show predators may:  Limit (control) prey population size  Fluctuate in coupled oscillations with their prey  Produce non-consumptive effects in their prey (“the ecology of fear”) Cycles of abundance in snowshoe hares
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