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Lecture 3

Bio 350 Lecture 3.docx

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Queen's University
BIOL 350
Lonnie William Aarssen

Bio 350 Lecture 2 (3 is underneath) - Final exam: 50%, poster assignment: 20%, participation in on-line discussion: 10%, biweekly quizzes: 20% st - 1 quiz, week 3 - Msg board: - 1) Everyone must post no later than Saturday night at midnight, October 22- at least one question that he/she considers to be novel & thought-provoking - 2) each students must respond- no later than by Nov 5 to at least 3 questions posted by three other students - Poster = work of art about topics Where are we now? And to what extent do we need to worry about stuffs? - A drop in the bucket for a snap shot of time, - Human wellbeing= extent to wthich we have the ability and opprtunity to live th kind of lives we have reaosn to value o Health, material needs, security, social relations o mapping the impact of the environment of different types of well being allows us to assess the impact of the env on individuals well being Well-being requires every ecosystem service Current state of civilization - Renewable resources: soil, water, forest, fisheries the sustainable rate of use can be no greater than the rate of regeneration: e.g. a rate of fishing that is no greater than the rate of fish population growth - Non-renewable resources: fossil fuels, mineral ores sustainable rate can be no greater than the rate at which a renewable resource can be substituted for it - For pollutants sewage, nitrogen deposition, pesticides, carbon emissions the sustainable rate of emission can be no greater than the rate at which the pollutant can be recycled, absorbed or rendered harmless in its sink - Accumulated outputs often also reduce inputs: e.g. using fossil fuels creates carbon emissions which in turn changes climate and affects agricultural yields COLLAPSE: Empty sources and full sinks, alas atlas math. Model shows we are screwed Problems of Inputs - Land, minerals, forests, water, food, energy 1) Land- only about 3% of the earths surface can be used to grow food a. Virtually of the land on earth that can be cultivated economically already is. We cant expect to grow significantly more food by increasing the amount land under cultivation - For many biomes, over 50% of original habitat area has been lost o See list - Asia, south America and Africa have transformed about 200 million hectares of habitat area into arable and cropland since the 1960s o Most in Asia, then Europe, north America, etc. - See pic of areas in which at least 30% of landscape is cultivated o Virtually all of the land on earth that can be cultivated already is - Arable land per capita is expected to drop by 20-40% within the first 25 years of this century due to climate change, soil degradation, urbanization, water shortages- plus rising population size. o Article: foreign investors buy up African farmland To secure food supplies, government are snapping up agricultural plots in Africa, what some call a new kind of colonialism 9.1 billion People by 2050, about two billion more than today. 50% increase in food alone in the next 20 years, which is bad. OECD says the prospects are bad 2) Minerals - brass, bronze, aluminum, copper, sludge - mineral extraction has double in 30 years between 1970 and 2000 ins some cases and has peaked in others - An underground rail tunnel under contractions in India, nation is adding thousands of miles of rail lines and new roads with infrastructure using TONS OF METAL - Mineral limits o Copper: 2044- copper is in everything from infrastructure o Indium: 2028 o Silver: 2029 o Gold: 2030 only 20 years are left of gold that can be easily mined - Most sites of mineral extraction has destroyed farmland and forests REST ON PAPER Bio 350 Lecture 3 Sept. 15 The current state of civilization Assessed in terms of the problems of inputs and the problems of outputs Accumulation of outputs = problem Empty inputs and tons of outputs 3) Forests ** Look at ecosystem services provided Whats so special about forces? Not just a source of fuel, fibre and lumber Women walk for miles to find and carry firewood in Africa Earths lungs, major source of oxygen in earth Source of water circulation (50% of water in clouds and rain transpired by forests). No forests= desert Build and protect top soil (prevent mineral and soil loss by erosion 1. They pride fuel fibre and lumber 2. They are the earths lungs- together with algae in the oceans, they are the major source of oxygen for the earths atmosphere 3. They are the earths source of water circulation: as much as 50% of the water that ends up in the clouds or rain has been transpired by forests: remove forests and you have desert 4. The build and protect top soil: remove forests and you lose soil and minerals by erosion 5. They are a major carbon sink: capturing, storing and decreasing greenhouse carbon dioxide levels 6. Home to the earths treasury of biodiversity Greatest Value of Forests Is Sustainable Water Supply Science Daily (July 21, 2008) The forests of the future may need to be managed as much for a sustainable supply of clean water as any other goal, researchers say in a new federal report -- but even so, forest resources will offer no "quick fix" to the insatiable, often conflicting demands for this precious resource. Scientists Point To Forests For Carbon Storage Solutions ScienceDaily (Sep. 15, 2008) Scientists who have determined how much carbon is stored annually in upper Midwest forests hope their findings will be used to accelerate global discussion about the strategy of managing forests to offset greenhouse gas emissions. Chinas tire demand rolls over southeast asian forests Problem: o Cutting down the forests ex. Rubber trees in Chinas for automobiles o Destroying carbon sink Paper consumption is up World Timber production is up 25% within 25 years World paper product production has doubled within 25 years between 1973-1988 Asia, Africa, central and south America lost between 10-20% of its primary forest area within 15 yrs between 1990-2005 o Rapid deforestation of Costa Rice within 43 yrs occurs, shrinking the forest from 1940- 1983 World forest area per capita that has shrunk by 80% of the past century o Reduced forest hectares per capita
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