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Winter Session Classics Week 1

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Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Classics Week 1 2013 Geography - Rome founded near River Tiber, on Italian peninsula – surrounded by water o Allowed for irrigation/ aqueducts, important for agriculture o Salt mines at mouth of River Tiber source of wealth/ important for diet – “salt of the earth” – “salary” comes from “salt” - Peninsula shared by other Italic populations: Etruscans, Sabines, Italic Hill Tribes, etc. o Spoke separate languages st o Etruscan not spoken since 1 century A.D., but does not have to be deciphered. Few Etruscan works remain. Early Rome - Rome founded in hilly area – easy to defend - Early Roman settlements understood from archaeology – no texts - Lived in huts – hut-depiction urns were commonly used to house ashes of the deceased The Foundation Myth of Rome – Remus and Romulus - Amulius and Numitor kings of Alba Longa; Numitor had a daughter Rhea Silvia who was a priestess and vestal virgin, meaning she couldn’t marry or reproduce - Rhea had twins, Remus and Romulus, because Mars the God of war fell in love with her - The twins were ordered to be thrown into the River Tiber, but the servant doing it left them at the edge of the river - Twins were found by a she-wolf (the Capitoline wolf) and she suckled them - The twins were found by shepherds beside a fig tree near cave by Palatine hill - Faustulus (one of the shepherds) and his wife Acca Larentia raised the twins - When they reached adulthood they wanted to found a city in the spot that they were found and saved. - To decide what to name the city (Roma or Remora?) they both went to separate hills to look for the omens of flying birds; Romulus had the better omen - Remus lept the city walls and was killed by Romulus (it was considered aggressive to enter the city this way – if he wanted to be friendly, he would have entered via the gates) - Romulus invited men exiled/left homelands - Women were needed to populate future generations, so they kidnapped and raped Sabine women - Rome’s birthday: April 21at 753 B.C.E – the date calculated and commonly accepted, according to Valerio Belli Greek Backgrounds - Felt need for connection to nobler past, as their own myth was violent and gross - Hercules was worshipped at Great Altar (ara maxima) in Rome Classics Week 1 2013 o Cult started by Evander and the Arcadians after Hercules killed bandit Cacus (who robbed the hero of the cattle of Geryon) - Aeneas, Trojan hero, a link between Greek world and Rome – so important that Vergil wrote his saga, the Aeneid Aeneas’ Saga - Trojan war, escaped sack of Troy with his small son and his elderly father Anchises on his back – considered a pious hero - Travelled from Troy – Sicily – Carthage- Italy etc. - Sources for saga: Hellanicus, Naevius, Ennius, Fabius Pictoir, Cato the Elder, Vergil, Levy - Aeneas arrived in Latium and became betrothed to Lavinia, a local princess (daughter of king Latinus); she was previously betrothed to a local prince - Aeneas fought aborigines due to conflict with local prince – was successful, married Lavinia - Aeneas founded the city Lavinium. He wanted to found another city, wanted to sacrifice a white sow, but it ran away. They found the pig, who had just delivered 30 piglets. He decided to wait 30 years due to a dream about this before founding the city where the pig delievered the piglets. - Aeneas died, became a god, and left his son Julus as successor, 30 years later Alba Longa was founded - Alba = feminine form of white, for white sow - Gens (clan) Julia claimed to be descendents of Aeneas (Julia from his son Julus’s name) - Famous Gens Julia : Caius Julius Caesar; Caius Octavius (later Julius Caesar Octavianus, later Augustus the first emperor) - Alba Longa was the city where Remus and Romulus were born, hence the link between Greece and Rome The Seven Kings -Rome a monarchy from 753-510 B.C. - In order: Romulus, Numa Pompilius (Sabine), Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus (Etruscan), Servius Tullius (Etruscan), Tarquinnus Superbus (The Arrogant) (E
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