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Lecture 9

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Classical Studies
CLST 200

Clst 200 Lecture 9  Sparta o History is poorly document  1 poet wrote about them o Military minded o Tough o Isolated by their mountainous borders o Trained in the army from a young age (7 or so) until age 18  Then between 18 and 30 they could marry but would not live with their wives until age 30 o Spartan marriage:  Organized and stable  Silent and tough  We only have outside history of Sparta th  Written during the 5 century o Rome idealized Sparta o Location  Between Taygetus and Parnon mountain ranges  On the Eurotas river  Area is called Lakonia or Lakedaemonia  Fertile land o Early History  Spartans were Dorian in Origin (From late Bronze Age / Early Dark Age  They claimed they were called “Sons of Heracles”  Heracles replaces dynasties (he replaced the one at Sparta) o Tyndarious – Heracles friend who was the father of Helen  They were in charge of Lakonia o Enslaved the population and called them Helots o Helo – to take or capture  Sparta had 5 villages  One called Amyklai o Procession of citizens there each year for Apollo. th o Celebrated in this 5 village  Karneia festival – agricultural with a military aspect o Also a fest to Apollo  Spartans did not serve in the military while celebrating this feth  No city fortifications until late 4 century o Development of Sparta  Nothing is known for certain  Lykurgus (man or myth?) lived sometime between 9 and 7 century  Originator of the Spartan military system  Thucydites  Greek  Says Sparta is militant, does not like strangers, are a secretive enemy  Xenophon  Served in Spartan army even though he was an Athenian o Wrote favorably about the Spartans  Plato / Aristotle  Philosophers who idealized Sparta  Plutarch also wrote favorably about Sparta  Great Rhetra  Their constitution  Associated with Lykurgus o Given to him by Apollo  Eunomia – having a good leadership  Plutarch writes on this  Pausanias st  Man from 1 century  Hands credit to Lykurgus for everything  Much that developed later has been associated with him, overtime probably o Messenian wars  2 wars th th  End of 8 century and middle of 7  Story comes from travel writer from 1 century AD o Lots most likely created  1 war  Spartans take over Messinia and enslave them  2 war  Messinians revolt but the Spartans eventually regain control  Tyrtaeus th  Poet who lived in the 7 century  Found in 2 Messinian war o He talks about unrest in Sparta because of land dispute  Colony at Tarentum formed while there was trouble.  Around 669  Sparta tried to expand boundaries to the East, to Argos  Defeated by the tyrant Pheidon  Just before 2 Messinian war  Their defeat causes Messinian revolt  Started to change their constitution, turning them into a military state o Chilon becomes a magistrate (ephor) at Sparta  Sparta was reforming itself  Said to be one of the wise men of Greece  He is associated with many successes at Sparta  Annual ephors, newly elected
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