1 – 215-205 – Peace of Phoenice (205 BC)
**2 - 200-196 BC – Flamininus defeated king Phillip of Macedonia (head of Antiginid) in
Thestole at battle of Cynoscephalae. Flaminius declared freedom to all the Greek states.
**3 171 – 168/7 BC – Lucius Aemilius Paullus. 168: Battle of Pynda.
King Phillip V died in 179BC. His son, Perseus succeeded him. When King Eumenes II of
Pergamum complained about Perseus to Rome, Rome decided to declare war. Didn’t do anything
for 3 years. Roman General Lucius Aemilius Paullus was sent out to conduct the Campaign.
Won decisive victory at battle of Pydna in SE Macedon in 168BC. Perseus captured, taken to
Rome. Effectively ended Macedonian empire; Macedon organized into 4 autonomous republics
which had to pay an annual tribute to Rome.
Decisive turning point in Roman foreign policy in east: after 168BC the whole Hellenistic world
was virtually reduced to the status of client states. (Selucid empire and Macedonia).
4 – 149 – 148 BC – Andriscus, false pretender pretended to be Perseus’ son, declared himself
king of Macedon. Rome launched war, it was short, Romans crushed him. Annexed Macedonia
as Roman Province.
**148 – Roman Province of Macedonia Polybius.
After 3 war, then turned attention to other Greek states, to reward allies and punish enemies.
Inflicted harsh retribution to prevent future disloyalty. 1000 Greeks, including famous historian
Polybius, were deported to Italy, where they were kept as hostages. Opirus, in W Greece – 70
towns sacked, 150,000 inhabitants enslaved. Greece finally succumbed to Roman domination in
146 BC, after sack of Corinth.
**146 BC – Sack of Corinth by Lucius Mummius (same year as sack of Carthage – busy year for
Aechean league in S Greece was very anti Roman. Pissed when only 300 survivors returned from
1000 original hostages. Some cities wished to break from Aechean league, matter refused with
Roman senate. Aecheans refused to comply with Roman advice, war broke out. Romans sent out
Lucius Mummius to punish Aechean league. To deter other Greeks from insurrection, Mummius
plundered and burnt Corinth, took all its treasure to Rome, enslaved most of its inhabitants.
Aechean league broke. Individual cities could still be Roman allies; the cities who hadn’t
supported Rome were made subject and tributary. Greece was put under the supervision of the
Roman Empire of Macedonia. Was not organized as the separate province as Aechean until a
century later, during Augustus’ reign. Rome’s loyal ally Rhodes had attempted to mediate a peaceful settlement between Rome and
Perseus in 3 Macedonian war; for that sin, the island of Rhodes had territory in Asia Minor
confiscated and duty free report at the island of Delos crippled Rhodes’ economy.
Rome’s other faitful ally, Pergamum, incurred Rome’s displeasure, suspected King Eumenes
supported Perseus. Pergamum also had to surrender territory. King Eumenes II died in 159 BC
and was succeeded by his brother, Attalus II, who was in turn succeeded by Attalus III in 138
BC. Attalus III died in 133 without heirs: bequeathed his rich kingdom to the Roman people.
Before Romans could take possession, a false claimant named Aristonicus appeared, an
illegitimate son to Eumenes II, mounted opposition to Rome from 132-129 BC. He was
Roman province was formed from the Kingdom of Pergamum in 129BC.
Occupation of a province on Asia Minor, made Rome mistress of both shores of the Aegean,
gave base to expand further east. Rome dominated entire Mediterranean world. Consequently,
Romans truly had every right to all Mediterranean: Mare Nostrum, Our Sea.
During Rome’s wars with Syria and Macedonia, they were also expanding the west, in N Italy,
Spain, and Africa. Recovered Cisalpine Gall (lost in Hannibal invasion) by founding colonies in
Po Valley, in 198 and 175 BC
196 Mediolanum (Milan)
Settlement facilitated by construction of major roads, Rome’s first paved highway.
312 BC – Via Appia (built by censor Appius Claudius) during second samnite war to facilitate
moving troops to Campania. This guy also built the first aquaduct, Aqua Appia, brought
freshwater to Rome from springs in the hills east of the city.
220 – Gauis Flaminius oversaw construction of Via Flaminia, ran to ....
187 – Via Aemilia – extention of Via Flaminia, led to Placentia, by way of Benonia.
made rapid Romanization possible between apenines and the alps in N Italy.
in 197 – After 2 punic war. Roman provinces of Nearer (Hispania Citerior) and Farther
(Hispania Ulterior) Spain.
Spanish tribes didn’t like Romans, revolted sometimes:
196 BC – quelled by Marcius something Cato.
191-189 BC – crushed by Lucious Ammelius Paulus.
179 – subdued by Tiberius Siberius Graccos.
Spanish resistance escalated into actual war: VIRIATHIC WAR (147 – 139 BC) waged by Lusitanias under leadership of Viriathus.
Lusitanians on super west Spain, coast of ocean. Viriathus defeated when Romans offered bribes
for his assassination.
In nearer spain, NUMANTINE WARS (143-133) waged by ... centered around town of
Numantia. Publius Cornelius SCIPIO AEMILIANUS – commander of Numantia. Starved the
people into submission, then burned down the town.
In North Africa
Carthage was a client after the Punnic wars – forbidden to make war without Rome’s consent. It
was therefore vulnerable to frequent attacks by Massinissa (Rome’s ally in the Punnic wars),
from neighbouring kingdom of Numibia. Carthage complained, Cato went to investigate. Peeved
by Carthage’s success, determined to destroy Carthage. Marcus Porcius Cato – “censo
Carthaginem esse delendam”, Carthage didn’t want to move, siege between Rome and Carthage.
Lasted ~2 years.
3 Punic war – 149-146 BC
*146 BC – sack of Sarthage
*146 BC – Roman province of Africa created.
P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (the younger – adopted grandson of orginal Africanus)
By 133BC, King Attelus III had bequeathed Pergamum to people, Scipio had sacked Carthage
and destroyed Numantia. Pretty much every state in the Mediterranean (except for modern day
Morocco and someone else).
Client Kings socii et amici (allies and friends) – usually used outside of Italy, so Rome looked
a wee bit more neutral. So Rome could rely on them to supply military aid if needed.
Conquered territories outside Italy, created independent states. States could not make war or
engage with politics of outside states.
This system was used in East for a long time. In west, conquered territories were incorporated
into Rome as Provincia. ***Provincia (pl provinciae) – a sphere of military command.
In later days of Roman republic, wanted to get money from their provinces: each roman