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Classical Studies
CLST 201

Wk11L01 PAX AUGUSTA – stressed his impact in creating peace for Rome. Believed that restoring Roman tradition and religion would allow people to revert to traditional values. First, he had to reintroduce the priesthoods. ARVAL BROTHERS – Fratres Arvales 13-9 - ARA PACIS (AUGUSTAE) PAX DEORUM 12 – Lepidus dies, Augusta takes up cheif priesthood, pontifex Maximus. 12 – FLAMEN DIALIS (priest of Jupiter) role restored. – the cult of Lares Augusti, believed in spirits to protect households 265 VICI – each was provided with a shrine for LARES AUGUSTI. Offering sacrifices to spirits also ment offering to Lares Augusta, the Genius of Augustus. Not outright worshipping Augustus, but revering him, praying for his protection. VICOMAGISTRI – officials oversaw each district; oversaw the shrines and kept the LARES AUGUSTI, oversaw stuff. Only in Rome. SEVRI AUGUSTALES – the vicomagistri of Italy outside of Rome. Fostered cult of Genius of Augustus outside Rome. Some cities in Magna Greca built temples to Augustus; Augustus did not allow this in Italy. If he were divine king, he could not be the first citizen of a legitimate Republic. In the East, worship of the governor as an expression of Rome’s power. New religion formed, celebrating unity of empire. The Imperial Cult. The personification of the state, Roma, appeared as early as 197, when Rome had begun to supplant the Hellenistic gods, but they worshipped individual people (Sulla, etc.) By 29, Pergamum (Asia) and Nicomedia (Bithynia) erected temples to Roma and Augustus and established religious festivals in their honour. Before Augustus’ death, every province the East had set up at least one alter dedicated to Roma and the empire. Augustus accepted and fostered this, as long as his name was linked with the goddess Roma. Imperial cult eventually made it to the west. 12 bc – alter of Roma and Augustus was established in Gaul outside of Lugdunum, modern day Leon, a major trading centre. 9bc – 4ad A similar alter erected in modern day Cologne (Oppidum Ubiorum) in Germany to establish a centre for worship in the projected new roman province of Germany. 17BC – Augustus felt their was sufficient foundation for “golden age” – he celebrated the Ludi Saeculares, the secular games. Held every 100 years (Saeculum). Three days, religious festivals performed in front of new temple to Apollo, Augustus and Agrippa made offerings. Choirs of children singing Horace’s, “Carmen Saeculare.” This secular hymn was created specifically for this event. Augustus had good PR, used his patronage to his advantage. CONTRIBUTION OF LATIN AUTHORS TO FURTHERING AUGUSTAN PROPEGANDA DURING THE GOLDEN AGE With peace and prosperity, golden age of literature and art. Augustan authors virgil, Horace, etc. Poetry was cvehicle for spreading Augustus’ ideas and such. Sang about loyalty to ones family, gods, and country, moral uprightness and moderation, etc – all things stressed by Augustus during his social reforms. They WILLINGLY praised and promoted the emperor, encouraged by Maecenas MAECENAS – patron of the arts, friend of Augustus. 70-19BC VERGIL – epic poet -AENEID – legitimizes Rome’s destiny, to become ruler of world empire, divinely sanctioned by the gods. Took last decade of his life; was suggested by Augustus. -hero AENEAS – represented the ideal Roman; embodies PIETAS (sense of duty) Vergil’s allusions to the Julian house suggested that they would find in the emperor Augustus the same virtues and mission of Aeneas (the refounding of Rome). In book 1, Jupiter (king of the gods) gives his divine sanction to Roman worldwide dominion. “IMPERIUM SINE FINE,” and “empire without end.” In book 6, Aeneas vists his father in the underworld, he predicts “Caesar Augustus, son of the deified,” doing great things, bringing about a golden age, etc. Romans are destined “to pacify, to impose the rule of law, to spare the conquered, to battle down the proud.” HORACE: 65 – 8bc. Lyric poet. Ilyric odes, especially the Roman odes of book 3. Praise a life of rustic simplicity, extole vrtures of “patriotism, courage, piety, justice, frugality, faith, etc. Octavian’s victory at Actium was a common theme, revisted by all sorts of authors. 17bc – Carmen Saeculare 59bc-17ad LIVY – historian -AB URBE CONDITA – history of Rome from foundation (like Aenead in prose, celebrating Rome’s past greatness and the moral virtues that got her power and prominence) MOS MAIORUM – the custom of our ancestors Belived in glorification of the traditional values, etc. 54-47 – c. 15bc PROPERTIUS – elegiac (love) poer -ELEGIES 55-48 – 19bc TIBULLUS – elegiac love poet, elegies. 43 – 17/18AD OVID (the youngest) – epic and elegiac poet. Epic METAMORPHOSES (collection of EPYLIA, little epics, from classic mythology, woven around idea of metamorphosis). Wrote a book (ARS AMATORIA, art of love, a didactic poem) about how to woo women – sort of promote liscentiousness? So Augustus got pissed. Because of a “Carmen and error” he fell out of good graces; exiled in 8AD to Tomis on Black Sea. Think the Carmen was ars amatoria, not sure about error (maybe something to do with Augustus’ granddaughter Julia). Augustus wanted imperialistic aggressive campaign. The disasterous defeats of Crassus (Carrae) and Antony (36bc), coupled with revolts in the west, forced him to exercise caution and diplomacy. Augustus expanded Roman territory and annexed new provinces only to secure the defensive frontiers of the empire, beyond which the peaceful development of civilization might progress. No Roman emperor before or after him ever added more territory to the empire than Augustus. The new lands were imperial provinces, and under his control. SPAIN AND GAUL (27-22bc) vs Cantabrians and Asturians (mountain tribes invading the interior) attacked farther and nearer Spain. Augustus lead stuff against them from August 27-26, had to leave due to poor health. Agrippa finished them off, including a subsequent revolt from 20-19bc. Augustus divided Farther Spain into BAETICA (Senatorial province) and LUSITANIA (imperial province). Now three
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