PAX AUGUSTA – stressed his impact in creating peace for Rome. Believed that restoring
Roman tradition and religion would allow people to revert to traditional values. First, he had to
reintroduce the priesthoods.
ARVAL BROTHERS – Fratres Arvales
13-9 - ARA PACIS (AUGUSTAE)
12 – Lepidus dies, Augusta takes up cheif priesthood, pontifex Maximus.
12 – FLAMEN DIALIS (priest of Jupiter) role restored.
– the cult of Lares Augusti, believed in spirits to protect households
265 VICI – each was provided with a shrine for LARES AUGUSTI. Offering sacrifices to spirits
also ment offering to Lares Augusta, the Genius of Augustus. Not outright worshipping
Augustus, but revering him, praying for his protection.
VICOMAGISTRI – officials oversaw each district; oversaw the shrines and kept the LARES
AUGUSTI, oversaw stuff. Only in Rome.
SEVRI AUGUSTALES – the vicomagistri of Italy outside of Rome. Fostered cult of Genius of
Augustus outside Rome.
Some cities in Magna Greca built temples to Augustus; Augustus did not allow this in Italy. If he
were divine king, he could not be the first citizen of a legitimate Republic. In the East, worship
of the governor as an expression of Rome’s power. New religion formed, celebrating unity of
empire. The Imperial Cult. The personification of the state, Roma, appeared as early as 197,
when Rome had begun to supplant the Hellenistic gods, but they worshipped individual people
By 29, Pergamum (Asia) and Nicomedia (Bithynia) erected temples to Roma and Augustus and
established religious festivals in their honour. Before Augustus’ death, every province the East
had set up at least one alter dedicated to Roma and the empire. Augustus accepted and fostered
this, as long as his name was linked with the goddess Roma.
Imperial cult eventually made it to the west.
12 bc – alter of Roma and Augustus was established in Gaul outside of Lugdunum, modern day
Leon, a major trading centre. 9bc – 4ad A similar alter erected in modern day Cologne (Oppidum Ubiorum) in Germany to
establish a centre for worship in the projected new roman province of Germany.
17BC – Augustus felt their was sufficient foundation for “golden age” – he celebrated the Ludi
Saeculares, the secular games. Held every 100 years (Saeculum). Three days, religious festivals
performed in front of new temple to Apollo, Augustus and Agrippa made offerings. Choirs of
children singing Horace’s, “Carmen Saeculare.” This secular hymn was created specifically for
this event. Augustus had good PR, used his patronage to his advantage.
CONTRIBUTION OF LATIN AUTHORS TO FURTHERING AUGUSTAN PROPEGANDA
DURING THE GOLDEN AGE
With peace and prosperity, golden age of literature and art. Augustan authors virgil, Horace, etc.
Poetry was cvehicle for spreading Augustus’ ideas and such. Sang about loyalty to ones family,
gods, and country, moral uprightness and moderation, etc – all things stressed by Augustus
during his social reforms. They WILLINGLY praised and promoted the emperor, encouraged by
MAECENAS – patron of the arts, friend of Augustus.
70-19BC VERGIL – epic poet
-AENEID – legitimizes Rome’s destiny, to become ruler of world empire, divinely sanctioned by
the gods. Took last decade of his life; was suggested by Augustus.
-hero AENEAS – represented the ideal Roman; embodies PIETAS (sense of duty)
Vergil’s allusions to the Julian house suggested that they would find in the emperor Augustus the
same virtues and mission of Aeneas (the refounding of Rome). In book 1, Jupiter (king of the
gods) gives his divine sanction to Roman worldwide dominion. “IMPERIUM SINE FINE,” and
“empire without end.”
In book 6, Aeneas vists his father in the underworld, he predicts “Caesar Augustus, son of the
deified,” doing great things, bringing about a golden age, etc.
Romans are destined “to pacify, to impose the rule of law, to spare the conquered, to battle down
the proud.” HORACE: 65 – 8bc. Lyric poet. Ilyric odes, especially the Roman odes of book 3. Praise a life
of rustic simplicity, extole vrtures of “patriotism, courage, piety, justice, frugality, faith, etc.
Octavian’s victory at Actium was a common theme, revisted by all sorts of authors.
17bc – Carmen Saeculare
59bc-17ad LIVY – historian
-AB URBE CONDITA – history of Rome from foundation (like Aenead in prose, celebrating
Rome’s past greatness and the moral virtues that got her power and prominence)
MOS MAIORUM – the custom of our ancestors
Belived in glorification of the traditional values, etc.
54-47 – c. 15bc PROPERTIUS – elegiac (love) poer
55-48 – 19bc TIBULLUS – elegiac love poet, elegies.
43 – 17/18AD OVID (the youngest) – epic and elegiac poet. Epic METAMORPHOSES
(collection of EPYLIA, little epics, from classic mythology, woven around idea of
metamorphosis). Wrote a book (ARS AMATORIA, art of love, a didactic poem) about how to
woo women – sort of promote liscentiousness? So Augustus got pissed. Because of a “Carmen
and error” he fell out of good graces; exiled in 8AD to Tomis on Black Sea. Think the Carmen
was ars amatoria, not sure about error (maybe something to do with Augustus’ granddaughter
Augustus wanted imperialistic aggressive campaign. The disasterous defeats of Crassus (Carrae)
and Antony (36bc), coupled with revolts in the west, forced him to exercise caution and
diplomacy. Augustus expanded Roman territory and annexed new provinces only to secure the
defensive frontiers of the empire, beyond which the peaceful development of civilization might
progress. No Roman emperor before or after him ever added more territory to the empire than
The new lands were imperial provinces, and under his control.
SPAIN AND GAUL (27-22bc)
vs Cantabrians and Asturians (mountain tribes invading the interior) attacked farther and nearer
Spain. Augustus lead stuff against them from August 27-26, had to leave due to poor health.
Agrippa finished them off, including a subsequent revolt from 20-19bc. Augustus divided
Farther Spain into BAETICA (Senatorial province) and LUSITANIA (imperial province). Now