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CLST 100 Lecture Notes - Headache, Olive Oil, Relay Race

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 100
Christina Zaccagnino

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Temples, Festivals and Cults
Athene Polias (the goddess of the city)
Polis= city
Generally all temples are directed towards the east, as this is where the sun
Most civic and sacred functions were under the patronage of the gods
o Boule (council of the city of Athens)
Zeus Boulaios
Artemis Boulaia
o Agora
Zeus Agoraios
Hermes Agoraios
Apollon Patroios had a temple dedicated to him, as he protected the
Phratria (pl. Phratriai)
o Zeus Phratrios
o Athene Phratria
Religion was a very important matter in the lives of the Greeks
Some months were named after the most important festivals that occurred
within the specific month.
Most important festival for the city of Athens; everybody was allowed to
attend and participate in the festival
Great Panathenaia
o Every 4 years from 566 BCE at the initiative of Peisistratos
Lesser Panathenaia
o Every year
Occurred on Hekatombaion 28
Birthday of Athene
Athene was the daughter of Metis (goddess of wisdom and skill) and Zeus
Zeus was advised that any offspring he would have with Metis would be
more powerful than him, so he decided to swallow Metis, but she had already
conceived a child.
One day Zeus had a headache because Athene was ready to be born. Athene
came out of the head of Zeus and she was born fully armoured.
Athene is a warrior but also the goddess of wisdom (from her mother)
Festival lasted at least a couple of days, but the exact length is not known
The Temple of Athena was destroyed during the Persian war
The procession for Great Panathenaia brought offerings and sacrifices (cows)
The robe was offered to the goddess every 4 years at the Great Panathenaia
Musical and Rhapsodic Contests
Rhapsoidos was an individual who sang poetry
In the Greek world the representation of victory is a woman with wings,
named Nike
If Nike is present, it means that the musician is about to win the contest
Torch Race
It consisted of bringing the fire from one altar to another (relay race)
If the torch went out they were eliminated from the competition
Nike was also present when the winner was announced of the torch race to
award him with a crown
Athletic Contests
Athleticism was very important in the Greek world, practicing sports was a
main part of the education of young boys
Athletes received as a reward an amphora filled with olive oil from Athens
Saddles and stirrups did not exist at this time
There were also chariot races and foot races
Pancration (wrestling) and boxing were also a part of the contests
There was a competition called the Pentathlon; there were 5 different
There were foot races and apobates (dismounter) where the athlete would
have to get out of the chariot, run along with the chariot than mount the
chariot once again
Athletes competed naked