CLST 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Gaius Gracchus, Hiero Ii Of Syracuse, Yasser Arafat

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Provinces: no territories or provinces overseas
Had Italian peninsula, controlled wide territory up to that, nothing overseas, can explain the
fact that Romans didn't need to build a naval fleet up to the battles of the 1st century
Sicily was first territory overseas for Rome 241 BCE, was rich land, for a long period most of
grain needed was from Sicily, but later replaced by Egypt. Admin of it was given to the Senate,
the Senate was later in charge of all subsequent provinces. Senate had the power to attribute
diff provinces to the governments but the provinces were selected by lot, Senate didn't make
the decision, match of governor was selected by lot, but governors members of the Senate. A
way for Senate to gain more power little by little, will see how the provinces were really
organized and governed
Territorial possession
Sphere of military activity: not in all provinces were Romans welcome, generally hated in
many. Many times, Romans didn't behave properly. Provinces had to pay taxes and there were
persons involved in collection of taxes who weren't the kindest people. Other cases, members
of the army made requisitions of territory, abuse of power, but in some cases they were
allowed, while others, did it to gain power/money/so on. Places with different languages,
Romans bringing culture, language, government system, army, was bewildering
Governors (proconsuls/propraetors): were generally persons who already have consulship
The senate decided to choose governors from its own rank and the assignment was done by lot.
Governors generally had already been consul or praetors. When they had to move to new office,
given a quaestor elected each year who dealt with financial dealings of the province
1 or more legati were their subordinates, Praefecti: prefects, who had to deal with different
matters in the provinces, Comities: companions, who were persons very close because of
familiar links or friendship, was a way to have experience considered good for their future
careers, could learn a lot about dealing with specific matters. Scribes, attendants and lictus.
The main duties of a governor were to promote Roman interest and to maintain peace and
order- to protect it against foreign enemies and domestic agitators and to serve as judge in
legal dispute. Dealt with enemies on boarder, etc.
Governor had to use skills to deal with locals because they knew that if they gave something to
them, they could better control territory, because locals wouldn't fight against Romans, would
prevent other people from doing that
89 BCE Grant of citizenship to a group of Spanish cavalrymen by Cnaeus Poempeius. Granted
so that they wouldn't fight him. Privilege to Spanish because they would have the right to vote
Very important for career of Roman man to be commander of a province. The commander of
the army/governor. Statue: most of his body's naked, not wearing armour, some robe thing.
Old man face, but hot bod, don't match, idealized. A way to give image of themselves as heroes,
quite common.
Les prouinciae: law for the province
Publius Rupilius -> Lex Pupilia (Sicily 132 BCE)
Governors used to post edicts on their arrival.
Provinces had to pay indemnities and poll taxes every year. The amount was decided by the
Senate, the collection usually delegated to private corporations (publicani). All magistrates
needed for collection of taxes, hired members of private corporations to do this. These private
collectors for Rome called publicani, gave problems because the way they acted to collect taxes
from people in provinces were not the most polite. They were hated by peeps. Risk of
corruption in provinces. Governor could hire some publicani with prior relationship, slip
Lex Hieronica: only place were there wasn't publicani collection was Sicily, had Lex
Hieronica. Hiero II tyrant of Syracuse. Local collectors kept doing this job in Sicily
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