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CLST 201 Lecture Notes - Basilica Julia, Vidi, Pontifex Maximus

Classical Studies
Course Code
CLST 201

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Test will cover until end of Caesar’s civil campaigns – Chapter 5 p98 8 p160. Mostly 6, 7, and
How important are dates? Name of battle is more important, but you should definitely try for
dates. Be able to make a connection between battle and date.
Reminder: Last week, we looked at Caesar’s Gaullic campaigns, and Caesar beating Pompey in
Pharsalus in Thesole, in August 48BC. Important date. Pompey fled to Egypt, picked up Cornelia
on route. Pompey beheaded by one of his advisors. His body left to rot on Egyptian shores.
Caesar pursued Pompey; arrives after Pompey’s death. While Caesar was in Egypt, got
“involved” with Cleopatra – bow chicka wow wow. Caesar stayed to settle dispute between
Ptolomy XIII and Cleopatra VII put Cleopatra on the throne. Incurred the anger of the people
of Alexandria, who had originally driven her out. Caesar also offended the Egyptian royal
advisors, he was besieged by their army in Alexandria in winter 48-47. Caesar only had 1 legion;
under attack by Ptolomy’s troops and the revolting mob of Alexandirans. Survived because he
controlled the sea eventually received reinforcements. In spring, two legions arrived Battle of
Alexandria. One legion was from Mithridates of Pergamum (not the one form Pontus), who
invaded Egypt through Syria.
Ptolomy fled, drowned in the Nile. Cleopatra then married younger brother, Ptolomy XIV, they
were given crown of Egypt.
In spring of 47, Caesar FINALLY departed from Egypt (he hung around for Cleo) to deal with a
new threat: Pharnaces II, son of Mithridates VI of Pontus. Pharnaces had taken advantage of civil
war to capture Pontus, lesser Armenia, and Cappadocia in Asia minor. Caesar goes over land,
through Syria, to Pontus.
47 Battle of Zela (in Pontus), defeats Pharnaces. Caesar had won all of Asia minor back in 5
days, so fast, he announced: “Veni, Vidi, Vici” – I came, I saw I conquered.
Went to Italy in the summer of 47. Caesar appointed dictator for the second time, Marc Antony
was his mast of army or something.
Caesar realized that chaos reigned in Rome, due to debts and stuff from war. Antony couldn’t
handle it; Caesar did. He was confronted with a mutiny of his soldiers, who demanded money,
land, and retirement. Caesar convinced them to stay “by his mere presence.”
47 Caesar leaves for Africa in the fall, where the Optimates had regrouped under Cato.
46 Battle of Thapsus defeats Pompeians/Optimates. Cato’s army reinforced by King Juba of
Numibia. The governor of Africa, Metellus Scipio, Pompeys father, soon replaced Cato as
commander. Labienus, once Caesar’s right hand man, also fought for the Pompeians. Caesar
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