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Lecture 6

film240 week 6 - Books

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Department
Film and Media
Course
FILM 240
Professor
Sidney Eve Matrix
Semester
Winter

Description
Books Lecture Thursday, October 25, 2012 8:32 AM Intro: READING HABITS The average Canadian reader purchases three books per month Readers who buy both paper and digital copies purchases 18 more books than the average reader (17 books per year) (Booknet) Leisure reading 75% of Gen Y reads regularly for pleasure (pew 2012) • Improvesyour mood • Deep relaxation • Low key entertainment 3x more womenreading than men for pleasure over all demographics • Leisure reading is gendered from childhood - Little girls enjoy playing with their picture books morethan little boys. When boys do read, they choose to read informational,humor, and graphic novels rather than fiction Correlation between reading and higher education: Age 15 is a key literacy moment:Research indicates that if you read well by age 15, you are more likely to enroll in higher education institutions by the age of 21. Only half of literacy-deficient15 year olds will end up in higher education Reading online, on tablets e-reading: • 47% of 18-24 age group regularly reads long form content (such as books, magazine or newspaper articles) online (pew 2012) • Young children recalled less content from enhanced e-books than from unadorned digital versions of the same book - enhanced versions are entertaining, not educational. • Seniors read 3x faster on an iPad - Able to zoom in on the font to make it bigger - Screen's brighter - Change the contrast - Easier to scroll • Reading helps you age more successfully; less likely to get depression or dementia BOOK TYPES Divided by Trade titles and Mass Market Paperback Trade Titles → books you can find at the bookstore • 50% of Canadian sales are trade books - can be fiction/nonfiction,cook books, how-to,travel, biography, adult/children's books • More expensive Mass market → top 40 best sellers • Cheaper (around $10) • Smaller, paperbacks • 20% of Canadian sales • 20% of Canadian sales • We sell more of them • Feature mass market blockbuster authors Blockbuster authors A huge fan communitythat buys everything they write • Fund the production of the trade books • Titles that are made into movies • Books will be published in multiple languages [ex] Young adult blockbuster authors: J.R.R. Tolkien, J.K. Rowling, Suzanne Collins, Stephanie Meyer • Some blockbuster titles have established a digital IQ (the Dark Lord twitter account) Romance fiction • The word of mouth surrounding praise for Fifty Shades of Grey has established the series as a romantic fiction phenomenon - More people feel comfortablereading this series from the privacy of their iPad • Harlequin Enterprises: a piece of Canadian history (created in Winnipeg, 1949),that followsthe universal themes that appeal to a global market: love, sex, power - World's leading publisher of women'sromance fiction - Classic narrative; fairytales for women - Exports 95% of what they produce, published in 26 languages - Publish >100 titles each month - "Entertain, enrich, desire" tagline - Pioneer producer of eBooksbefore tablets and smartphones were mainstream (you could purchase digital versions to read on your computer) • Romancenovels have a very distinct narrative that they stick to - universal themes Cobranding: Harlequin partnered with Nascar Young adult Different Blockbuster authors who know how to package adventure and fiction • Historically, "chick-lit" was popular (Gossip Girl variety) • New fascination with the supernatural changes this genre - more dark fantasy The TwilightEffect: The flood of vampire related stories into American pop culture in the late 2000s due to the adaptation of the vampire novels in the "Twilight" series into film form, where womenof all ages fell in love with pale, melodramaticpeople who sparkle in the sunlight wilst not being able to act to save their lives - Urban Dictionary • Harlequin has begun producing a vampire/supernaturalseries • Geared towards teens Teens have begun to recognize their favourite authors as celebrities: We can share our thoughts with the people who write our favourite books through social media approachability Comics,manga, graphic narratives Low cultural value - lowest form of formulaic fiction • Little or no value • Cause moral panics • Developeda self-policing code of conduct to avoid governmentcensoring/externalregulation and sale continuation Companies • Marvel comics was purchased by Disney (unexclusively),who is now producing films and theme park promotionscentered around these characters - Marvel also sold the rights to their characters to other production companies,like Fox • DC comics Graphic narratives and manga: Graphic narratives and manga: • Inspired in America by their success in Japanese culture since the 1920s • Most are geared towards males • Manga for women - the "Ginger Blossum" series from Harlequin publications • The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo is being convertedinto a manga series. - More imagery than text The target market is not young adults, but rather middle-aged women • Many graphic novels have been adapted into movies(V for Vendetta) • Graphic novels were established as educational resources with the title "Maus", a 1992story about the impact of Nazism on Jewish culture during WWII - Appeals to a younger demographic; interesting read for students Multimodal literacies → images and text coexist in an equally blended form • The ability to "read" images in an essential 21st century skill - we're a visual culture now • Linearity of narrative is not expected - potential cognitive workout • Different literacies work well with the rise of the graphic web • Attracts young boys to reading - useful classroom texts Instant and celebrity books Autobiographies, rise to stardom story, biographies, memoir Instant Books: first on the stand • Fact-checking is not important • Instantaneity is the currency • Capitalize on newsworthy-nessof the moment University press titles Mostly not in the business to be successful in the commercialmarketplace • Won't see at Chapters/Indigo • Available online • Publishes professor's books Reference books, encyclopedias → Referred to rather than read start to finish • Encyclopedias • Catalogs • Dictionaries Need to be updated to online versions in order to maintain their usability • Many encyclopediaswent online-only in order to be able to constantly update their entries with changing times, and to enhance their ability to include multiple entries from a variety of sources • Wikipedia (2001): 23 million articles, 365 million readers, available in 285 languages - Studies show that Wikipedia has similar error rates to online print encyclopedias Textbooks BOOK SALES Bestsellerlists & book prizes How books are ranked on these bestseller lists determines how they will sell • Bestseller lists are compiled by industries, trade organizations, and newspapers Awards (nominated or won) will increase readability traffic • Winning an award allows authors to change their coversto include their award sticker, which will attract an audience will attract an audience Bookstores, retail chains: trysumers,being-spaces • Indigo controls 40% of domesticbook sales - Has swept up smaller book chains • Your book needs to be featured in retail chains to be successful Being Space → Space between work and home • Cafés • Being with other people while doing your own personal work • Half private/half social - encourage communication Trysumers → Allow you to try out the book or magazine in their in-store cafés before you buy it • Allow you to have a sample of the product so that you will make the purchase Independent & used book retailers Different landscape of books that are available to be purchased leads to a heightened discoverability of smaller, more obscure titles. • Not enough book traffic leads to closure of small book retailers - We have sentimentalfeelings about small bookstores,but we still tend to vote with our wallets: we want the immediacyand cheapness of the big box stores • Best chances at success if they niche themselvesinto genres Mass-market retail/non traditional & department store Nontraditional Book retailers: • 30% of Canadian book market is sold in Big Box stores like Costco, Walmart and other department stores • Will only hold on to titles for a short period of time - small window for success before being sent back to the publisher • Prices are extremelylow - changes our expectation of how much a book should sell for universally Online bookstores • 35% growth in online book retail throughout 2011 now that we are more comfortablein using credit cards online • eBooksrepresent 16% of Canadian book market • Big box book retailers don't care if you buy books online or in paper copies Amazon.com is at the forefront of selling morebooks than any other company due to their extensive inventory International • 1.5 B annual Canadian book sales • 27.2 B in USA Bandwagon Sales: 65% of sales are the top 10000titles, 35% of sales are the remaining 400000titles (long tail effect) • We read the same books at the same time based on Bestseller lists Book clubs: mail order to online, and social book clubs Popular in rural areas who did not have an access to book stores A panel of literary experts choose the books for you: Oprah identifies books we should be reading (cultural and literary authority) through her online-only book club • Agenda-setting • Agenda-setting • Celebrity endorsementcurates the literary sales • A book club establishes itself as a sound selectorof good books and sells by means of its own prestige. Thus, the prestige of each new title need to be built up before becoming acceptable. • Expert-curation of good literary taste • Book clubs have become social networks - discussions through Twitter feeds and Facebook pages - It's convenientto gather everyoneonline rather than driving to a physical meeting destination - Specific to our niche of individual book tastes [ex] HuffPost Book Club: social by design Social reading People want to share what they have read with other people and receive feedback • E-Readers and iBooks encourage people to read through socialization and gamification - Frictionless sharing - Social word of mouth - Recommendationengine [ex] Kobo, GoodReads • You want a sense of communitysurrounding what you are reading • Starts conversations • Social proximities - connected to something bigger than yourself • Helps a book become more memorable/valuable - Gateway to membership in a social community Books becomea social platform • You can highlight a passage and post it to your wall to share with your friends • You can also see annotations of everyoneelse who has read the book MEDIA CONVERGENCE Audiobooks • 11% people over age 16 listened to an audiobook last year - Listen at the gym - Long car rides while you're driving - To fall asleep - Reading a book for school is less painful • Appeal to generation Y BookTrackapplication • You can get a soundtrack for your book • synched with the page that you're on • Emmersifiedexperience to celebrate the imagery of the author's texts with matching audio • Senses your reading speed and audio will match • Sensory experience will heighten your engagement with a book Book trailers • Increasingly high production book trailers • Effective to their respective target markets • Successful if they are intriguing without giving the whole plot away, graphically appealing, emotionallycaptivating, memorable,relatable, and/or innovative eBooks, eReaders, DRM Libraries movedigital Libraries movedigital • Lighter • Convenience/painless • They don't go out of stock - always available • Sell them at cost - not making money from the product, but the advertisementin the app/on the website • eBooksare the #1 preferred version across all categoriesof books - Amazon says that they sold more eBooksthan print copies of each title We prefer paper copies because: • They are a more personal experience • Nostalgic • If your eBook crashes, you lose them • Different consuming feel The number of adults owning digital reading devices jumped 10% over the holidays in December 2011,raising the statistic to indicate that approximately30% of adults have a tablet or eReader • More and more people are curious about/trying out digital reading • The top sales window for eBooks is 8:30 - 11pm (Kobo) • "We want to make money when people use our devices, not when people buy our devices… we sell the hardware at cost" - Amazon CEO, Jeff Bezos • eReaders owners say they are reading 4x more now than they did before - We don't stop buying print copies, we indulge in both purchases Digital Rights Management: • More difficult to share books with friends through pass along readership • Interfere with the developmentof literacy in our culture - the digital divide will be widened by the fact that it is not as easy to share books with people - If the book industry is digitized, online versions may not be accessible by demographics who cannot afford the hardware eTextbooks Hardcopy textbooksvs. Online subscriptions • Less than 1% of film 240 chose the eBookonly option (44/1200) Apple is reinventing textbooksso they can be morecustomized • Interactive • Audio and video features • Adoption relies on a mass of students having iPads Smartbooks→ furnished learning analytics • The future of textbookpublishing is learning software and analytics and feedback and rich technology - Gives professors information about how many of their students have read, how much time is spent with the text, how many people completedthe end quiz • Easier course customizationby professors Hollywoodizationof books • Synergy: Migration of books to the screen • Books that don't win literary awards can be Oscar-worthymovies • Kids books being converted to moviescan be successful across multiple demographics, because many adults are nostalgic for their favourite childhood reads Fandom & fidelity: hypercommercialism,subsidiary rights/merch Fandom & fidelity: hypercommercialism,subsidiary rights/merch [ex] Twilight perfume, bags, etc - Merchandise overload Chick lit to chick flicks Typically romantic comediesthat follow similar plot lines about emotionalyoung womennavigating through unique situations [ex] the Lucky One, Something Borrowed, He's Just Not That Into You, Bridget Jones Diary Graphic narrative cinematic adaptations • Complex plots • A-list actors and directors • Impressive special effects • High budgets - appeal to gamer generation • Moral panic: graphic content such as sex, violence,and other mature themes Books Readings Monday, December 03, 2012 6:45 PM Introduction Pg. 287-288 • Throughout the 1900s, the combination of bookstores with espresso cafés and comfortable seating arrangements propelled the success of the book industry, including successful small, independent establishments. • Amazon.com (after its 1995 debut) grew steadily to represent 1/5 of all consumer book sales due to its extensive collection and low prices • Amazon digitally reinvented the book industry in 2007 with its introduction of the Kindle - Readers could download electronic books wirelessly from the Amazon bookstore - To encourage the adoption of the Kindle, Amazon dramatically reduced the cost of e-books in order to effectively compete with much more expensive hardcover book prices, but this new business model was criticized for being unsustainable and non-profitable • The release of the iPad encouragedthe development of the online book industry, forcing publishers and retailers (such as Amazon or the Apple iBookstore) to negotiate a pricing system that would accurately represent the reduction in production costs while still fairly compensating authors and publishers. - The Agency pricing system → Publishers would set the prices for e-books (initially in the 12.99 - 14.99 range) and release them on the same day as printed books. As agents for the publishers, retailers would keep 30% of the book revenue, while the remaining 70% would go to the publisher. • Amazon now sells more e-books than print books The introduction of the eBook has reinvented our expectations of the book industry, including: • Our understandingof what a book is (ink and paper to digital adaptations) • Acceptable price (range is lower) • The role of the publisher The business that brings - Established authors are making deals directly with online companies together authors and to release eBooks without the publisher middleman readers is undergoing - Decline of publishers results in a decline in unknownauthor enormous change discoverability; there's no growth to the book industry • Our perception of what a bookstore is Types of Books Pg. 295-302 Categories were established by publishers and trade organizations (such as Association of American Publishers) based upon economic and structural differences. Sales figures for book types: Estimated US Book Revenue 2010 TRADE BOOKS → The most visible book industry segment, featuring hardbound and paperback books aimed at general readers. Sold at bookstores and other retail outlets. Distinguishes among adult trade, juvenile trade, and comics/graphic novels 1) Adult trade: hardbound and paperback fiction, current nonfiction, biographies, literary classics, books on hobbies/art/travel, popularscience, technology/computer publications, self-help books, cookbooks 2) Juvenile Trade: preschool picture books, young adult or young reader books [ex] Dr. Seuss, Harry Potter series 3) Comics/Graphic Novels: Long-form stories with frame-by-frame drawings and dialogue • Appeal to both youth or adult/male or female demographics • In 2006, graphic novel sales surpassed comic books • Many movies have been inspired by comics (focus on warriors and superheroes) and graphic novels PROFESSIONAL BOOKS → Technical books that target various occupational groups and are not intended for the general consumer market • Subdivided into the major areas of law, business, medicine, and technical-scientific works • Sold through mail order, the Internet, or sales representatives • Readers intend to develop their skills in their specialized professions TEXTBOOKS → Books which target the "el-hi" (elementary and highschool) and college markets. They serve to improve literacy rates and public education. The success of textbooks throughout history correlates with the amount of individuals who had the opportunity to obtain an education (The demographic of the "student" has changed over time) • Elementary school textbooks thrived throughout the nineteenth century, while college textbooks didn't mainstream until the 1950s when the GI Bill enabled middle-class men to attend college upon returning from WWII. • The demand for textbooks accelerated further through the 1960s as educational opportunities for women and minorities expanded. Textbooks are subdivided into el-hi texts, college texts, and vocational texts • Local school districts or statewide adoption policies determine which el-hi textbooks are appropriate for their students - If an individualschool chooses to use books other than those mandated,they are not reimbursed by the state for their purchases. - This system prevents individual institutions from being able to address the specific educational needs and problems of their students problems of their students • College texts are paid for by individual students - Many students have a self-established system of trading, reselling, or renting textbooks, or have turned to online editions in order to avoid the high prices set by college bookstores. Breakdown of a college retail textbook price: 77.4% - textbook wholesale cost: publisher's paper, printing, editorial, general and administrative costs, marketing costs, publisher's income, author's income 10.7% - College Store Personnel: Store employee salaries and benefits to handle ordering, receiving, pricing, shelving, cashiers, customer service, refund desk, and sending extra textbooks back to the publisher 7.2% College Store Operations: Insurance, utilities, buildingand equipment rent and maint
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