Geol104 lecture 29 mass wasting con"t/moving water. Types of mass wasting cold climates. When thaws, moves and causes ripple looking marks. Classified as a creep, active layer moves down the slope. Underneath lake, normally doesn"t freeze because of ice insulation. Gets lens of permafrost under the lake. When spring comes, lake melts, the frozen block comes up to surface of water. Hydraulic (open-system) pingos result from groundwater flowing from outside sources. Top 1-2m is subject to seasonal flaw. Low frost heaves containing frozen ice lenses. Bedrock is all made of broken angular rocks due to ice wedging. Railroads insulate the ground and melt the permafrost, the ground reacts with loss of permafrost. Heat from house radiated down from basement and melts permafrost beneath house. Up north, build houses on stilts to keep heat away from surface. Raised them above ground in low-lying wetlands and on stilts: palsa, ice wedges, felsenmeer. Earth as a system: the hydrologic cycle.